The Ming tombs
The Ming tombs are located in the territory of the Northwestern suburbs of Beijing Changping County, back against the tianshou, is surrounded on three sides by trend, up to 100 square kilometers and was buried 13 emperors in Ming and another concubine tomb of Tomb 6, Prince 1 called “tombs”, is China’s largest mausoleum of the emperor.
Since the year 1368, Ming Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang of the Ming dynasty capital in Nanjing, to 1644 ad mingsizongzhu by check hanged himself in coal mountain (now Beijing Jingshan Park) for a total of 16 emperors. Buried Zhu Yuanzhang Ming Xiaoling mausoleum in Nanjing, built the Emperor Zhu Yunwen “battle of Jing” is unknown, their tombs into historical mystery; the jingtai Emperor Zhu Qiyu in history “the door” died and was buried in the western suburbs of Beijing kingsoft. The remaining 13 emperors are buried near the tianshou. From Ming seven years (1409) began construction of the mausoleum, the first year of shunzhi (1644) built SI ling, after 240 years, Tian Shan Ming tomb under construction have been almost continuously. From days Shoushan South of Dragon, and Tiger II mountain middle of Shinto, into Ling District, its buried order followed by for: long Ling (Cheng zu Zhu di), and offered Ling (Renzong Zhu Gaozhi), and Jing Ling (Xuan Zong Zhu Zhanji), and Yu ling (Pope Zhu Qizhen), and Mau Ling (Gazette cases Zhu Jianshen), and Thai Ling (filial piety cases Zhu blesses Tang), and Kang Ling (Wu Zong Zhu Houzhao), and Yong Ling (Sejong Zhu Hou熜), and Zhao Ling (Mu Zongzhu contains Hou), and set Ling (Shenzong Zhu Yijun), and celebrates Ling (light cases Zhu changluo), and de Ling (fit cases Zhu by school), and thought Ling (thought cases Zhu by check). Area of ancillary buildings such as the Palace, whisk and the sacrificial offering of the temple Department, Shen Gong Jian, slaughter Pavilion, orchards all over the area, reflects not only the regulation of imperial tombs of the Ming dynasty tombs, but also the quiet gardens of the Ming dynasty style.
In the Ming dynasty, Ming tombs was a heavily fortified area, Ming dynasty along the area around 10 mountain pass, built with walls and fortresses, guarded by heavily armed day and night, long time reached tens of thousands of people. Have provisions of the laws: the mausoleum will be allowed in tree felling, soil, stone, upon pain of death. Although later was burned by water and nature, but the overall architecture of the Ming tombs and a large number of ground and underground heritage is extremely rich. Folklore stories arising from the tombs, but also Pretty and colorful. Where the tombs of the Ming tombs district, cultural, all shining with luster of material civilization and spiritual civilization of the Chinese nation and leaving ugly and evil of the feudal society of the positive.
It was recorded in Changping District, Gu Yanwu of the landscape in mind: Ming for five years (1407) in July, “empress Xu BEng, shangming rites Zhao 羾 Ming Liao Junqing Forum, JI in changpingxian Loess Hills in the East. And visit and the tianshou, with seven years (1409) May Mao mausoleum, … … Naturally, long yan Ling around for a domain. “Since 1407 select mausoleum site, to 1409Year designated, which lasted two years, Director Ling site, has received a lot of proposals were Emperor Zhu di No. Is said to have first selected in Changping small Tangshan area, for Cheng zu surname Zhu, and “pig” homophonic, pig is fear hot of, so waste off; estuary of TU home camp North has seat Dragon Wo, Feng Shui very better, but for fear pig into has Tu Jia was slaughter and waste to; and has Changping southwest of Yang Shan, mountain Hou has a village called “Wolf son Yu”, also is cannot with. Last by Jiangxi du geomancer Liao Junqing (is Ming tombs Ling District of Chief select Home) selected changpingxian of loess mountain, mountain Qian has seat Kang home graves of village, West has a Acorn Ling mountain, East of loop called dry water river, plus loess mountain of Feng Shui, Zhu di Pro-to survey, think pig to has here, has bran (Kang), and Acorn eat, also has Gan (dry) water thirsty, is Zhu Jia eternal development of JI to, was was finds for Ling site. These are stories, of course, matters are decided by the loess hills topography: mountains, such as arches, such as screen, Middle flat, soil and water rich, Nankai inlet at both ends and Tiger Mountain and the mountain of Longshan two situation: a witness to, and Loess Hills is like a big Chair. Zhu changling tomb sites of their choosing, on the “Chair” of Central. Fully reflects the tombs of the emperors of China, and wantonly Xuan Yang Feng Shui and divine nature in order to achieve the objective of consolidating political power.
Changling, back in accordance with Shoushan, Zhu Ling building at the Ming tombs the earliest is also the largest ground construction of a mausoleum of the emperor. The mausoleum after the front circle, covering an area of about 100,000 square meters. Grace blessing, blessing en Palace, Tower three yards, and depth of approximately 350 meters. Mausoleum of construction material to be used strictly and fine construction. Especially made of Nanmu blessing grace Temple eaves Wu Temple, 9 rooms, depth 5, more than 1900 square meter temple area alone. 32 pillar of Phoebe, about 12 meters high, diameter at breast height is 1 m from top to bottom, without oil, and unadorned. Whole top is composed of 60 wood pillars support the temple, standing in the House, could still smell the wood fragrance. This temple has become a rare and precious cultural relics in China’s ancient architecture.
11 year of Yongle (1413), Yuen Ling underground Palace was built, and empress Xu died 6 years (eldest daughter founders Xu da Ming) coffin in the King’s second son (hanwang) under the accompany, moved Tian Shou Shanchang ling, Changping District. Dr LO Wing-Lok 22-year (1424), Zhu di personally for the 5th time, June, arrived at the lannamu River (present-day Mongolia in and northeast of forest City), food spoils and returned to Beijing. In July, in a place called Elm (now territory of duolun County, Inner Mongolia) died at the age of 65. Due to the death of all of a sudden, accompanied by the eunuch Ma and scholar Yang Rong agreed, secret not give obituary notice. Way back to the city “living eating as usual.” Returned to Beijing in August and December, reopen the underground the Ling DAO Xuan Gong, Zhu di buried. Is the existence of a secret of Zhu di’s death, itself since the spread of several legends. Ling did not, which are widely considered long Zhu remains, buried the shot he spear. Zhu di, I am in pursuit of the enemy into a cave and never come out again, leaving only a spear. Of course, this is just legend.
Xian mausoleum burial Renzong Zhu Gaozhi was eldest son Zhu di, the reign of only 9 months. His deathbed Testament: “frugal”, Xian ling’s overall size much smaller than the mausoleum. Buried with Empress Zhang, according to unofficial accounts: first year of Hung Shing (1425), seven in early April, on the Palace Zhang Huanghou birthday, the “season”. Imperial concubine Guo should be congratulated, and make a toast to the Queen, but she did not drink, and Renzong Emperor looked at present is said to the Queen, there are suspicious, please? Then drink the glass of wine. Guo looked at startled, back to his house, hanged himself after death. Soon, Renzong fell ill, then collapsing dead. Zhang Huanghou survived, lived for more than 60 years old. Renzong eldest son Zhu Zhanji ascended the throne, when his Jing ling, its size is no more than offering mausoleum. In the tombs, larger apart from Chang ling, Yong Ling and Ming tombs.
Yong Ling was Zhu Hou熜 and Chen, Fang Shi, du’s three concubines buried tombs. It contains: Zhu Hou熜 15, ascended the throne, the era name of Emperor Jiajing, the reign of 45 years. He was a cousin of Wu Zong Zhu Houzhao, Wu Zong Ying he, no child was Testament throne. The throne soon, “meaning” basis, regardless of her courtiers against, offered King’s father had died as a sacrifice to the Emperor, his mother Chiang hailed as Empress Dowager, to rebuild the graveyard of their parents, Ling, recommended. This is the history of Ming’s famous “big battle”. In this debate, Sejong ordered arrested more than 190 people, and killed 17 people on the spot, put down the “imperial exams”, and his identity has become a regular. Zhu Hou熜 is like Alchemy, for the sake of immortality, his harem and some Warlocks Alchemy. Alchemy ingredients other than minerals such as mercury is said to be still need girl’s menarche menstrual blood compatibility. Recorded: Jiajing (1522-1566) across the country have repeatedly 8-14, the daughter of hundreds of mining into the Palace, some maids have no future and committed suicide. 21 year of Jiajing (1542) in October broke the famous “Imperial”. Sejong end consort Cao drink and sleep in the Palace, Palace maid Yang Jinying, who with the rope tight around his neck, thinking he had been strangled, maids came apart. Queen Fang Shi know this feeling rushed to the scene, to be saved. Later, Yang Jinying, more than 20 people, regardless of “zhe in the city of” beheading. Sejong fright while busy moved out of the Palace and lived in Westfield wanshougongda 24 years old until before his death, return to the Palace. During Sejong building Yong ling, 11To view, Yongling shape “magnificent fine, Chang ling less.” Due to his Taoism, Yong Ling Palace according to the Taoist “kokonoe Inquisition” was built. Legend during the viewing, Yang Cuiling Shou House of his and said, “my mausoleum was finished? “Squire courtier quickly replied:” outside the walls there is a outside Rochester yet built. “In this way, Yong Ling and Chang ling along the outer walls, forming characteristics of the heavy door wall.
Ling Wan Lidi is Zhu Yijun and filial end Xiao Jing mausoleum buried two wives of 3 people. Zhu Yijun is the longest-reigning Emperor Ming emperor (48 years), 12 years of Wanli (1584), 22, Wan Lidi Zhu Yijun in the style of the mausoleum of his grandfather – Yong Ling to build his mausoleum. Until 18 years of Wanli (1590) was built in June, lasted 6 years, the consumption of silver 8,000,002, equal to the national two-year land tax revenue. Main building and Yong ling is similar, but its size and material selection, construction practices, and much more than the Yong ling. After Qing dynasty scholar Liang studied tombs affirms Junli splendor of dingling, that construction of the Ming tombs are “exhaustive House of money, poor artisans skillfully” is very pertinent. History, however, completion of the dingling, but time and time again by fire. It contains: in 1644, Li Zicheng’s peasant army under the leadership of Beijing when he passed the Ming tombs, Kang, concentration, zhaosan, had set fire to the mausoleum, Tomb building has not yet been completely destroyed on the ground. The Qing army after the Qing dynasty Regent Wang Duoer gun in retaliation for Wan Lidi had broken the Jin dynasty in Fangshan (now Beijing Fangshan County territory) of zu ling, also the blessing of dingling en surface buildings, such as the demolition of the temple. Dynasty, in order to ease the national problem, the way to remove small, reconstruction of Yong ling, ling’s main building on the ground. In 1914, the tombs of the landlords for area management, Ling was a fire, fire 3rd reportedly does not extinguish, grace grace blessing and blessing the temple only bare plinth, surface buildings were burned down. In the village of dingling underground Palace Southeast of dingling, was burnt out, leaving only Ling village, half of the door pillars. Today, the village on the site of the dingling, had turned into a piece of fruit.
Dingling excavations began in May 1956, after a year of hard work, dingling “underground Palace” the mystery was revealed. A large number of precious cultural relics unearthed from, one of the most amazingly Yi Zhu Jun’s Crown and the Queen’s Coronet. Gold Crown called wings good Crown, a height of 24 cm. Is made of very fine gold wire woven, upper Crown set with two Golden Dragon play bead, look lively. Reportedly, dynasty, Yi Zhu Jun during the tour, he likes to take a gold silk hair tired Crown, Python on Dragon coils more than priceless. Discovery of Gold Crown, confirmed the records of history. Rockhopper has four top shape, inserts, each Pearl more than 500, precious 150 or so. It contains, custom of the Ming dynasty, Queen’s Coronet as 9 dragons 4 Phoenix, but unearthed from dingling Coronet, long 9 Phoenix 12. Yi Zhu Jun loved Queen, to the point of ruining raditional law.
In the tombs, only SI ling, Jane is a Royal graveyard alterations. Chongzhen Emperor Chu Yu-Chien reigned 17 years old, 17 years later, Li came to Beijing, Chu Yu-Chien shou Huang Ting hanged himself, long live in the mountains. Li Zicheng’s life under Chu Yu-Chien buried tombs in conjunction and the Queen’s Royal Tombs in the area, but only carrying a stroke to Changping town “but leaving the coffin back.” Finally by Changping State official Zhao Yigui 10 people donate coins 340,000, hired opened Royal graveyard ramps, Chu Yu-Chien, Zhou Huanghou was buried into. Chu Yu-Chien had no coffin coffin, had to move the Royal coffin for Emperor Chongzhen, then covered with Phong tho. The early Qing dynasty, the Qing dynasty as the win over the Han nobility, built after the Ming imperial tombs regulation to take ground, known as the SI ling.
Worthy of mention is the slave prevailed since the sacrificial system in the Zhengtong Emperor Zhu Qizhen was on his deathbed he abolished. Zhu Qizhen lifetime didn’t do much good, abolition of the sacrificial system, but is considered a good thing. According to the biography contains history, Empress Ming: Zhu Qizhen deathbed Testament said employing immolation, I can’t bear to do it, it should me repealed, future generations don’t make anymore. From Chinese tombs will be prevented from employing Guardsmen as a system. According to this and the history of “civil” about. Orthodox 14 years (1449), Aggressively South w Thorn, eunuch Wang Zhen tried to get away with access to power, British hostage clan, and results were defeated in civil engineering (now Hebei Huailai County, South-East). Pope had been captured. Soon, the Prince ascended the throne, away from his Holiness Pope as Overlord. The following year, the Pope returned to Beijing residence Palace for as long as seven years, called Overlord, but was closed, door is locked, even the trees have been cut down in the yard naked. Qian Huanghou living with, often doing the needlework, very considerate care of Pope. Pope is said to be deeply moved, “the door of” Pope landed again at last, dying in the Testament, leaves the “Queen of money, fame and pigment, when filial piety to try out. …… What should be buried in the future “. Abolition and concubines buried alive. Prior to this the three Imperial mausoleums (offer long ling, Ling, Jing ling), the concubines buried alive is very serious, this is the tombs of “East” and “West”. People reportedly buried alive on the day of death, the first to go to the party, after being taken to a temple. At this moment, cries scope of operation, these ordinary ladies was put on a small wooden, eunuch with the beams under the hanging rope bumpers maids head, removed a small wooden bed, was hanged to death. Mount coffin after death into brick point (“well”, no ramps). Sacrificial maids, concubines and their families have also been called “sky woman”, granted to certain offices. It contains: mausoleum of burying more than 30 people, offering Tomb 5, Jing Ling 11 (10 people).
Today, the Ming tombs as a national key cultural relics protection units, become a fascinating tourist attraction. Here, not only can look to the history of the rise and fall of the Ming dynasty, one can still see the wisdom and contribution of the Chinese people.