The luxury of decline — Alhambra’s Palace

Finally, a China Southern Tang Emperor Li size once wrote a famous piece of word, the plaintive to almost unbounded: “q-how can worry about, like one Jiangchun water to the East.” And away from China’s thousands of miles of Spain Granada kings built the famous in the architectural history of the palace, that is, the Alhambra Palace, also known as Moorish palace, is the sad melancholy is specific reflect.

Spain’s Islamic state has gone down, the situation is very serious, and the Catholic Church in Spain is in vogue for a time, there is a great unity of the whole of spain. And small the kingdom of Granada and what forces to stop, finally one day, the Spanish monarch sent his command, life Granada surrender to it, and converted to Catholicism, or weapon additivity. In the face of the powerful kingdom of Spain, Granada king Achel Wang immediately summoned his giant to discuss countermeasures, a few days in a row, they are still arguing about. The interior minister, led by openly advocating peace. The Military Secretary led battle. Chancellor of the exchequer played a way: “we have many natural barrier, big Kwan, Fumo opens, and our officers and men of the concerted efforts, and resolutely fight against foreign aggression.” Interior minister played a way: “of our country, the army is less, if we want to win is almost impossible, than peace, to protect the ancestors.” They argue that there is no unified opinion. The fifth day AHMAR brother came back from outside, the brother said: “the current situation is concerned, if lose the natural barrier to Chen eye enemy unavoidably too long the enemy of gas, since ancient times, outnumbered and a lot of examples, the problem is we must unite in a common struggle against the enemy.” Then Hemar killed the Spanish envoy, ordered the messengers to the king of spain. The Spanish king Jiexin fly: “you what granada! Dare to kill me if I insulted the messengers.” So that night dear collar army to go forward with great strength and vigour of granada. Gemar Wang heard the news’ panic, military minister said: “since ancient times Fight fire with water. They are the masters of the evil, and the God will bless us over it.” So the Military Secretary to coach, led the fifty thousand army against the Spanish army.

A few days later, the Spanish army and hundreds of miles, it is ever-victorious, invincible. Finally in a day to meet the military. A military genius military minister Eshou into the capital must pass through, as the Spanish army is not for what provocation. Every night, a small military minister sent troops to harass the enemy. The Spanish soldiers had to rest for a few nights, and then in a dark night 90 miles. The king heard the enemy Hemar retreat immediately ordered to Chancellor of the exchequer attack, Chancellor of the Exchequer in succession letter 12 said in a statement: “the enemy is too strong, we can only with static braking. They do not support long distant supply, food, and can automatically retreat, then we will be done in one vigorous effort to win.” But the king of Hemar listen to those jealous Chancellor of the exchequer of courtiers, be sure to Chancellor of the exchequer attack, said: “the morale of the enemy has fallen, and not to attack, let them to recharge your batteries will be more difficult to cope with.” The military minister received the letter after yangtianzhangtan “days I want to die, feel helpless.” Immediately went toward the army command. Spanish spies heard the news early, late to arrange only Granada troops into the net. When Granada’s forces into the bag, a sound, more than 2 00000 against 50000, less than half, Spain made glorious victory. Chancellor of the Exchequer’s Dutch act. The Spanish army marched to the capital of granada.

King Hull heard the news, once a scene of chaos and at a loss. The interior minister said: “now only and nothing else.” So Hemar Wang Ming Interior Minister as plenipotentiary to the Spanish forces and, while Spain now provender shortage, although known as the Erershiwan army, the lose a lot, centerless battles. He agreed to make peace. But for Granada must serve the Catholic, to the king of Hemar to send to the heads of his battle prince, and each year must tribute silver five million and two thousand, in King Hemar panic in the entirely accepted this humiliating treaty, there is a war just ended.

So, in order to maintain the kingdom of Granada and comfortable palace of pleasure, humiliation to survive. And the Alhambra is they face the irretrievable decline to seek a life of luxury reflected, so the palace built is gorgeous, elegant and extravagant. Give a person a kind of find joy in sorrow in melancholy feel helpless.

It was built in a solitary risk of Granada Spain on the mountain, surrounded by a circle of 3500 meters long stone wall. Snaking its way through the thick forest green plexus, which is why it’s called the Alhambra, the Alhambra in Arabic meaning is “red fort”. It covers an area of 35 acres, around the ring with high thick castle and dozens of towers. The earliest of the human’s architecture, including the Alhambra castle and the Alhambra, is the palace of the molar, the latter is the residence of other officials and the people of the Lord.

When people through along the wall gate that the public entrance, you can see two mutually vertical rectangular courtyard. The courtyard to the north and South called Academy of garnet, toward the view, the atmosphere than a solemn, things to the yard called lion court, wives of access, the environment is a luxury.
The hospital is not high: on both sides of the walls, the north and south ends with slender gallery. Behind the North Gallery tickets is the main hall, the main hall, also known as ambassador hall is a square, the base 18 square meters, 18 meters high hall, in the middle is a dome of 75 feet tall, to the throne room, equipped with Sudan throne, Ambassador hall to the sculpture of the star shaped ceiling color and arched windows known, overall correct discreet, by contrast the house more, coupon Gallery Yi light, gallery in the temple walls are in plastering layer painted designs. The courtyard is not grand, rich, but showing a touch of melancholy. There is a rectangular pool in the yard, crystal flow Che, four weeks with myrtles, so also known as the golden mother Palace here. So relax a bit stiff atmosphere, the yard, and some soft. With the East mosque and the Academy of the bathroom, the courtyard full up.

The lion house is a rectangular courtyard, 116 feet long and 66 feet wide. The practice and school were. Surrounded by 124 marble columns, they are crowded with irregular arrangement. A little clever in composition. This fine beautiful exquisite gallery from the intense and unstable color change shows the lion of charming. Imitate the Cistercian Order of hands between the forms of middle construction, brisk circular roof decorated with filigree pattern exquisite workmanship. Palace courtyard floor is paved with encaustic brick, surrounded by walls trimmed to 5 feet tall with blue and yellow and white color brick, up and down and indigo blue and golden yellow dichromatic enamel decorative edge. Interior is full of brightly colored geometric patterns and Arabia text patterns. Palace center is the fountain of lions, is a carved 12 head symbol of strength of white marble lions surrounded by alabaster dish shaped pool, lion shaped Xiongjin, who seized the momentum, name this is the Lion House, also near the sisters hall, hundreds of 5000 small sag, form different cellular roof. This is as representative of the Moorish clock pumice dome, hall placed a mole people the earliest porcelain products – 1320 vases. School is on the north side of the wives of the bedroom, there is a small garden outdoor. From the mountain springs drew into N Road, murmuring flowing through each bedroom, to the summer heat, and finally into the long pond in hospital.

In building on the periphery of the Alhambra Palace, built in the 13th century “to create a business” garden villa is the most famous, the Alhambra, natural environment, it is tranquil and fresh, rose garden, laurel and myrtle moors are left, rich fragrance, in the garden and an elm tree. This is in 1812 the British Duke of Wellington transplanted from Britain to here.

The Mausoleum of Emperor Qinshihuang (一)

Geographical environment
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor in the south of Mount Li, north of the Wei river.
This with a beautiful natural environment, the only Mount Li Lintong County East horse amount of this mountain range high altitude. The mountains zygomorphic, like a screen like stand at the beginning of the mausoleum after, the mausoleum is located in Lishan Mountain crest surrounded by, and the Lishan seamless.
There is an artificial pond water transformation in the eastern side of the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor. According to the “waterways” records: “water out of the Lishan Mountain in the northeast, the originate Beiliu, after Emperor Qin Shihuang buried in Shanbei, the water had and crooked, east north, turn, Shihuang made Ling soil, its in the deep, the water volume into a pool, predicate pond…… The water flow through the northwest North emperor.” The original came from the northeast of Mount Li water pond, the water from south to north. Later built the mausoleum of the first Qin emperor, in the cemetery of the construction of the southwest side of a thing to the dam, the length of the dam is more than 1000 meters, width 40 meters, the width of 70 meters, residual 2 to 8 meters high, it is commonly referred to as the Wuling site. It is this dam will be originally from Li pond water to the northeast northwest flow, and around the northeast of Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor.
In addition, on the eastern side of the cemetery, there are hot spring water through the The stream never stops flowing. According to the “shuijingzhu” records: “there are hot spring water in the pond water southwest, the world as liaoji”. “Sanqinji” contains: “Li Shan hot springs in northwest.” Water pond hot springs and the northwest was visible.
On the south side of the mountain, the east side of the East and the formation of the three surface of the ring. “Mountain water ring” is the most important geographical features of Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor.
The Mausoleum of Emperor Qinshihuang
Ancestors of the emperor and Empress Dowager Xuan cemetery buried in Linzhang county to the west of the Zhi Yang area, the mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, selection is decided at the time of the etiquette in the east of the Zhi Yang Lishan o, because the ancient imperial tombs are in accordance with the living of the noble and humble arrangement. “Book of Rites”, “Ya” and other books records: “the south, north, West”. “This is the southwest corner of Austria, elders are”. The Eastern Han Dynasty, “Lun Heng,” a book records was more explicit: “west of Cardiff, elders, respect, respect in the west, the British young in the East…… The dead husband tomb, Tibet; Tian, the diet; house, people live, three people, to more fierce.” Namely in Zhi Yang to empress dowager Xuan also hope that the tomb buried in between her husband and son, namely “Nishimo Goo, looking east my child”, it seems that also is by elders in the west, the British young east principle. Qin Shihuang has known ancestors buried in the Yang Zhi Qin zhaoxiangwang, Qin Zhuangxiang Wang Heqin declared empress. Since the ancestors of tombs are buried in the west of Linzhang County, buried in the east of Zhi Yang as a junior Qin Shihuang only. Sidelined if the tomb in the west of the Zhi Yang, apparently contrary to the traditional etiquette, so the mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, selected at the foot of Lishan in full compliance with the younger generation to occupy the ritual.
The Prime Minister Li Si is the tomb of the designer, so Zhang Han government supervision. A total of 720000 human resources, the use of the number of the tomb of the maximum number of nearly 800000, almost equivalent to the construction of the 8 times the number of Pyramid hu.

Construction process
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor is a huge project, with the number of workers, the long duration is hitherto unknown.
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor construction scenario
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor construction scenario
The cemetery construction with Qin Shihuang’s political career. When he was 13 years old just ascended the throne when Qin Zheng Yuannian (247 years ago), the cemetery will start construction. The ancient emperors had made the emperor’s mausoleum is not the first, early in the Warring States period had made princes King Ling has become a common practice. Such as “Zhao Su Hou fifteen years Shou Ling”, and Zhongshan Pingshan King’s tomb is a lifetime. But Qin Shihuang had made the King Mausoleum ahead of time to the throne early, this is an improvement of Qin Shihuang. Cemetery project built for 39 years, until the death of the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty has not yet completed, Emperor Hu hai to the throne, then built more than a year basically completed.
The cemetery project, and can be divided into three construction stages.
Initial stage. Since the emperor ascended the throne to the unity of the 26 years, this stage has launched cemetery project design and the main body of the project construction, initially laid the cemetery project scale and the basic pattern.
Medium term. From the national to Qin Shihuang for thirty-five years, 9 years, for the large-scale construction period of the cemetery project. Up to 720000 prisoners to large-scale construction, the basic completion of the main project of the cemetery.
Final stage. Since the Qin Shi Huang 35 years to Qin II, two years in winter, which lasted more than three years, this stage is mainly cemetery project closeout and soil covering tasks. At this stage outbreak of the Chen Sheng, Wu Guangqiyi, hit from the cemetery is insufficient number of Whalley of swimming near (now near Lintong County Xinfeng), the Qin Empire is on the verge of death. At this time had been promoted to Shaofu that Zhang Han suggested: “pirates have been to, all the Xinjiang, now county nearly too late to take a tumble, Lishan acts, please pardon, granted soldiers to strike.” II immediately quasi playing, life Zhang Han led repair mausoleum army hit back at the rebel army, have not yet been fully completed the cemetery project had to hastily completed.
History of past dynasties
Qin Zi Ying Yuannian (206 years ago), Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor suffered the first time may also be one of the greatest catastrophe. According to the Ski Gozo Chronicles “and” Han, volume one, first Gautier Ji “,” Han, Volume 36, Chu Yuan Wang passed the sixth “records, Xiang Yu scored Guanzhong, massive destruction of the mausoleum of the first Qin emperor, destroying the buildings on the ground of excavation and the emperor.
The Mausoleum of Emperor Qinshihuang
The Mausoleum of Emperor Qinshihuang
Liu Bang defeated Xiang Yu, the capital of Changan, the establishment of the Western Han dynasty. In order to win over the people all over the world, to the Han Emperor twelve years (195 years ago), ordered the mausoleum of the first Qin emperor properly to protect, make 20 families who lived around the mausoleum of Emperor Qinshihuang, as Shouling people watch the mausoleum of the first Qin emperor. Since then, various dynasties rulers of the Qin Dynasty imperial tombs, were ordered to protect.
But even so, the not well. Record “Han – Liu Xiangchuan” there is a child in the vicinity of the mausoleum of Emperor Qinshihuang sheep, one sheep fall into the hole, children play with torches to the caves to find, unexpectedly has entered the underground palace, caused the fire, will be the emperor’s coffin burned. Remember to “Han”, “waterways Wei Shui” also made added: “the shepherd seeking sheep burning fire, ninety immortal extension.”
The new mang Dynasty, the Red Army will find Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor excavation, buried with copper coffin, melted, with copper.
The Wei and Jin Dynasties, the rulers and the excavation of Zhao Shi hu.
The Tang Dynasty, Huang Chao scored off, Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor has experienced a massive destruction. Huang Chao stolen Qin Dynasties have legend, Ming Du Mu in the Lishan “cloud:” the beginning of imperial tombs of the inner city Friday in, old four door, outer city 20 weeks, the site kept Ju, from nandom, Qiu Bingzhi,: the south gate also. Right door pivot and exposed soil stone, high four Zhang Ling, Xiang Yu, Huang Chao all taste. Old man: he was buried in the cloud, the virtual ear.” Are mu the Lishan “written Huang Chao to steal the mausoleum of things, in new and old,” Tang “was not recorded, so many scholars for its authenticity questioned.

Stone Forest

History and culture
Yunnan Stone Forest geology park “the stone forest” is the world’s earliest karst terminology and 300 BC, Qu Yuan’s “Tianwen works have Shilin;
At the end of the 19th century in Paris, France, the journal appeared relevant Shilin Yi Sani people and cultural articles; stone forest in 1931 by government attention, the stone forest park built in the early; in the 1930s is the stone forest in the scientific research literature;
In the 1940s, a large number of scholars of stone forest and Yi culture; from 1950s to 1980s, scholars at home and abroad gathered, geology, geomorphology, hydrology, vegetation, animals, people and their social and economic have knowledge system, has become the Yunnan provincial nature reserves and national key scenic spots, Shilin tourism development research produce significant benefits.

In the mid-1990s were held an international karst academic conference, twice Shilin special international symposium, the completion of the stone forest geology and geomorphology, the monographic study, Shilin scientific value and international status has been confirmed; 1999 Stone Forest Management Bureau and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing geographical research, the establishment of a joint Shilin research center, domestic and foreign famous karst researchers composition Shilin Scholarship Fund Committee, Shilin research fund was established, from the stone forest tourism income allocation of funding Shilin research, scholars at home and abroad application, project funding has more than 50, Shilin power machine, stone forest ecosystem, stone forest development and protection are in-depth study.
2000 held an international seminar in Shilin Yi culture; scientific research has laid a solid foundation for the development of forest protection.

The origin of the Yi Nationality
Today, most of the time in a hurry, a small part of time to go shopping, only to the attractions is the stone forest. On the road from time to time can be seen minority living in the house built close to the mountains, layer upon layer, forming a piece of residential area, and residential area, the mountains is steaming mist, like a big green steamed steamed.
The stone forest mainly inhabited by minorities or yi. Yi’s house is similar to the Dali Bai people, also painted on the wall of the outer wall is full of fine pictures. The difference is that the wall is painted on the wall of the traditional Chinese painting, and the Yi is an exaggeration of the art of painting, style as print. The whole wall is a huge piece of work, looks lively, vivid, image, atmosphere, it is appreciated.

With national flavor of the sculpture.
Among all the minority nationalities, the people of the Yi people are outstanding, they are the only people who use their own calendar. They used the “October solar calendar”, a total of 36 days a month, a year, a total of ten months, the last remaining five days as the new year. They take the twelve signs of the zodiac, belonging to the day of the zodiac, the street, called what street, therefore, the road of the Yi people in Niujie, dog street, Ma Street, Sheep Street, and so on. Yi the reason for not using the Han of the lunar calendar, is because the Han of the 24 solar terms for Yi does not apply, they have their own culture and folk custom. And they created the earliest Egyptian calendar, the calendar more than 200 years earlier than the world. Very early on in the Yi nationality of your own text and glyph and pronunciation are Japanese kana and have many similar, as between the two priorities, it is not known.

Costumes with national characteristics
Yi is a national sing and dance, saying, “will be talking to sing folk songs, walking will jump left dance”, it is the best portrayal of the Yi people. When the young men and women in love, is to form Duige to find lovers. Therefore, if a girl can neither dance nor sing, it will be equal to the marriage. During their traditional festivals, they are singing and dancing to celebrate, so Yi dance is very popular.

The Yi people of wine, wine can drink the wind heyday, people of all ages and both sexes are generally, their alcohol consumption is very high. Even saying that to describe them: “a pound pound gargle, three pounds four pounds of moistening throat, five pounds six pounds down the wall I don’t pour, 7 pounds, eight pounds of what all don’t know.” In the Yi nationality, the woman takes the good wine for his own man. If a man at the banquet on all the people to drink down and they are not drunk, that is a woman hero. So, when a man is drunk, Yi women is there won’t be any blame, but her husband home, boil water to wash his face and feet and settle his sleep well. This custom, let go with the men who would envy, not sigh hate their early married some years.

According to our common people’s habits, to wake up in the morning to drink a glass of boiled water to clean the stomach, and the Yi people wake up in the morning, is to drink a glass of liquor. People who do not know the difference, and their explanation is very simple, do not drink a glass of wine a day can not sleep. Yi has a sentence: “no wine is not a feast, no tea, no guests, no song.” When you get to the Yi minority, they if you are the guest of honor, with the possession of the aged Pu’er hospitality, to show the guests warmly and sincerely. In addition, they have the custom of entering the three cup wine. When guests come to respect the first wine and said, “welcoming wine”, stretch even dry three cups, eat when Jing second wine, said “welcome wine”, guests are walking when king the third wine, known as “see a visitor out wine”. Each wine cup is three. , of course, the Yi people although good drink, but they are mainly rice, corn wine, rice wine, the degree is not high and drink slowly, drank too much is not objectionable. The Yi people wine tank to fill, so it is called “jars of wine”. And they eat the meat, called “Tuo Tuo meat”, is to cut the meat into a Tuo Tuo, not slice is not chopped, so take out to the elders or guests to eat. In the Yi People’s view, the meat chopped chopped, equal to cut off the feelings. Therefore, the meat will “bulk” tasty meal.

Wudang Mountain

Wudang Mountains, the holy land of Taoism, is located in Shiyan City, Danjiangkou Province, Hubei province. Wudang hill, also known as Tai Shan, Xie Luoshan, mountain ginseng, Xianshi mountain, the ancient have “high mountain”, “elegant” and “Yue”.

As of 2013, Wudang Mountains has 53 ancient buildings, construction area of 27000 square meters, construction site 9, an area of about 200000 square meters, the whole mountain to preserve all kinds of cultural relics 5035.

The Ming Dynasty, Wudang Mountains was the emperor as “Yue”, “Zhi Shi Xuan Yue”, known as “the supreme imperial temples”. Wudang Mountains in the “four famous mountains are arch Yi, prominent five party is the” five Chaozong Xianyueshan “crown” is well known in the world.

Wudang Mountains is one of the world’s cultural heritage sites released by the United Nations, is China’s national key scenic area, national AAAAA grade scenic area. Wudang Mountains is the birthplace of Taoism and Wudang martial arts, known as “the ancient warriors Shengjing mountains, the best in all the land”.
Wudang martial arts, is an important genre of Chinese martial arts. Yuanmomingchu, monk Zhang Sanfeng in the future, create Wudang, and influence so far.

Taoism development
Before the Northern Song Dynasty has not yet appeared Xuanwu myth, Wudang Mountains has become a famous mountain of taoism. Wudang Mountains in the name of Han (126-221) has been. “Houhanshu” records of Zhu Muyin in Wudang Mountains. Northern and Southern Dynasties (386-582) Li Daoyuan (? -527) written by “shuijingzhu” records, also known as Wudang Mountains, Shen Xian, Taihe mountain mountain room, Xie Luoshan. The home of immortal Taoism known for a total of ten blessed spot, cave, cave thirty-six, seventy-two place. The famous Tang Dynasty monk Sima Cheng Zhen (647-735) series “not included” blessed spot in Wudang Mountains. The Du Guangting (850-933 years) in 901 series “Dongtianfudi Yue Du mountain Ji will be included in the Wudang Mountain 72 blessed the ninth blessed. This shows that at the end of the ninth century, at the beginning of Tenth Century, Wudang Mountains has become one of the holy land of Taoism.

Before the Song Dynasty, the literature on Wudang Mountains is not much. In addition to the already mentioned above, “Han”, “waterways” and “Dongtianfudi Yue Du mountain” out, otherwise the Tang Dynasty Li Jifu (758-814 years) written by “element and counties map” that are not mentioned in the Xuanwu. In the initial stages of the North Song Dynasty Li Fang (925-996 years) series taipingyulan Volume 43 “Wudang”, quoted the data with the Wudang Mountain, the Nanyong state of mind “,” Yin Jun inward “,” Zhen Huan on, recorded history in Wudang Taoist immortal person Yin Xi, Yin Changsheng, Dyson, Xie Yun et al without mention of basaltic deeds. Music History (925-1002) written by “Taiping Huanyuji” volume one hundred and forty-three “Wudang Mountains” is not about Xuanwu records. This can be used as the early Northern Song Dynasty have not been to Wudang Mountains and Xuanwu holding relations.

Wudang Mountains has become the holy land should be enshrined in the Xuanwu “Primus said after the North Zhenwu” wonderful printed appearance. Song Huizong Xuanhe years (1119-1125 years) to create zixiaogong worship Xuan in Wudang Mountains north of the top Wu, may be the first Wudang Mountains basalt temple to worship. To the Southern Song Dynasty, Xuanwu belief has been very common, Xuanwu monastic legend of the Wudang Mountains has been the public. Dong Suhuang “Emperor Xuan memoir of Taihe mountain, Wudang Mountain have a detailed description, indicating the location of Wudang Mountain is located below the wing Chiu Capella in overseas. And the increase of Qing Dynasty Jade purple Xuanwu Tao Yuanjun taught, ordered him to practice the plot of Wudang Mountains. “Emperor Xuan record” records: “the fifteen year old prince (Xuanwu) by parents, look for the valley resort. So moved jade Qing Dynasty granted endless road purple goddess. Yuan Jun said: can Bacchus East, there are mountains in the carriage under the wing…… Can choose the peak into the mountains, run high in the clouds……. The prince is in the teacher’s language, Yue Haidong, fruit see the mountain. The landscape has seventy-two peaks, no hiding, a large Chui, sky tower, when Yang ji. So mining division of the commandment, Head Hill said Taihe mountain peak, peak, purple. Purple rock rock said, because of living yan. Hidden virtual one, the silent will be million, forty-two years, the big way.”……

The song into the occasion, all States have been in all States, Wudang Mountains temple was severely damaged. For example zixiaogong after 1260 has been deserted. In 1267, Kublai Khan in the capital of yanjing. 1269 winter, tortoise, snake and Yanjing in the western suburbs of sorghum river. They thought is manifestation of basaltic, a symbol of the Yuan Dynasty in the fortunes of Xinglong, Emperor room and worship Xuanwu. In 1270 he built palace Zhao sorghum to worship xuanwu. Taoist Wang Zhen chang into the Wudang Mountains in 1275, led by Dayou Lu et al five view reconstruction followers. In 1278 the number of spell famous Taoist priest Zhao Shoujie, led the disciples rebuilt Wudang you Sheng guan. 1286 Kublai Khan life master Ye Xizhen, Liu Daoming, Hua Dong really acted as Wudang Mountains reminding, and repeated drop Yu Xiang to Wudang Mountain blessing wishes.

Yuan Dynasty, Wudang Mountain by emperor worship and various Taoist business make incense is more flourishing, legend of the relationship between basaltic and Wudang Mountain, also have new development. Liu Daoming writes “Wudang Fudi general collection” the origin of the name of the Wudang Mountains put forward a new view. He believes that the Wudang Mountain named Taihe mountain, due to the success of the basalt in the convent, after soaring, the mountain non basaltic to when, renamed the Wudang. The book is full of relics in the Wudang Mountains Xuanwu JiangMo the convent. Five is to view as an example, the Wudang Mountains scenery that will be attached to the xuanwu.
As far as possible is Dong Huang Zhuan “Wulong view monument” contained, five Longguan built is due to the Yao Jian to Wudang Mountain to pray for rain have experience, the supernatural Zou Wen Emperor Taizong (627-649 year reign). Wudang Mountains built in view of emperor decree the miracle. At the end of the Southern Song Dynasty, Wang Xiangzhi will retreat as Xuanwu five view. Liu Daoming accordingly and invent basaltic enlightenment soaring, five dragon Ye driving rising, so in his old hidden place built five Longguan to sacrifice.
A Book later in the Wudang blessed general collection “of the book of Xuantian emperor Qisheng, in the story of the Taoist Wudang Mountain, ornamentation of the plot, and after the test, make the biography of the basaltic more in line with the Taoist immortal biography of the conventional structure, namely the ascetic monasticism from the beginning, after the test and rose ascend fairyland. And the new additions are indicated in the plot.
Taoist music
Taoist music, Taoist praying ceremony, for the gods wish Christmas, pray God bless, demon exorcism and turn undead etc. the ritual activities in music.
Taoist music is indispensable in the Taoist praying ceremony. It has contrast, rendering the atmosphere of religion, strengthen the belief in the supernatural world yearning and the gods worship function.

Le as an ancient religious music, on the connotation of musical form and tone are permeated with basic Taoist beliefs and aesthetic thoughts, the formation of the unique pattern.

Road music aesthetics reflected the pursuit of longevity and quietism. The solemn melody, and there is no lack of quiet quiet. Performance called God sent the great momentum, the demon Exorcist terrible courageous, praying for blessings and Qing joy, lively, sing the praises of God is a beautiful and quiet, and pray keep refining is melodious dimly discernible. Through the music of contrast, rendering, the Taoist ceremony, more solemn, solemn, sacred and mysterious; in music all immortal artistic conception can harmonious vividly reproduced the emotion into the mysterious world of the immortals.

Taoism music is composed of two parts of vocal and instrumental music, performing various forms of diversity, including solo, chorus, solo, ensemble and musical accompaniment form. Vocal music is the main part of the Taoist ritual music, melody (verses) is always very specific, expressing the ritual of desires and begging for, or resort to divine, or praise to angel. The melody and lyrics of harmony and unity, through various form collocation, make of the ritual activities.

Taoism music instrument includes almost the Chinese national musical instruments with more is bell, drums, chime, cymbals clang, wooden fish percussion; Sheng, pipes, flute, Xiao piped music; guqin, Ruan and other plucked string music.

Beijing Zhoukoudian

The UNESCO World Heritage Committee in December 1987 approved the Beijing man as a world cultural heritage site of Zhoukoudian. Zhoukoudian site backed by undulating ridges and peaks of the Taihang Mountains, facing the vast North China Plain, piedmont river meanders through, here is rich in natural resources, warm and pleasant climate is 50 million years ago Homo erectus pekinensis, 10 – 20 million years ago, the new hole, 1 – 3 million years before Shanding cave people living place. Zhoukoudian site since 1927 to large-scale systematic excavations since, were found in 27 different periods of various fossils and cultural remains site, unearthed on behalf of the fossil remains of more than 40 “Peking Man”, more than 10 million pieces of stone, nearly 200 species of fossil animals and a large number of remains of fires become world-famous human fossil treasure house and ancient science, archaeology, paleontology, stratigraphy, geochronology, environmental science and karst science and other multi-disciplinary comprehensive research base.
Zhoukoudian Ancient Site

In 1961 by the State Council announced the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units; in 1987 by UNESCO as China’s first batch of “world cultural heritage”; in 1992 was included in the youth education base in Beijing; the Central Propaganda Department in 1997 and listed it as one of the national hundred patriotic socialist education demonstration bases; was conferred the national popular science education base for young people by the Central Committee in 2006; in 2008 by the State Cultural Relics Bureau as a national museum. Zhoukoudian site is divided into two parts of the site and the museum, open to the audience. The site is famous for the ape cave, cave, cave and other new fossil sites. Museum contains seven exhibition, possession of large precious cultural relics, animal fossils and stone, to display in the form of pictures to the audience interpretation of the Zhoukoudian site of historical and cultural value.

Zhoukoudian Beijing man site is located in Beijing city of Fangshan District Zhoukoudian mountain, about 50 km from Beijing. In 1929 Chinese paleontologist Pei Wenzhong found in this primitive human teeth, bones and a complete skull. And found the “Beijing people” life, hunting and the use of the ruins of the fire, confirmed that 500000 years ago, the Beijing region has human activities. Archaeologists have begun here excavations discovered dating back about 60 million years ago a complete skull Yuanren, named the Beijing ape man. After the keel in the mountains found some man used stone tools and fire sites. This discovery and research, this site has laid a special irreplaceable position in the study of ancient Chinese in the world. Zhoukoudian site is the world’s most abundant, the most vivid, the most vivid, and the most profound and the most thorough research of the ancient human remains.
Skull restoration image
Beijing ape man fossils out of a total of head cover bone with 6, 12 pieces of skull fragments, mandible 15, teeth 157 gold and fracture of the femur, tibia belonging to 40 multiple individuals ages. Found 100000 pieces of stone material and the ashes of the fire burning ruins and stone, burned bone etc.. Beijing, the average brain capacity of 1088 ml (modern brain capacity of 1400), according to projections for the Peking man standing 156 cm (male) and 150 cm (female). Beijing people are the stone age, the method of the processing of the method of the tool is hammer hammer, the second is to hit the hammer, even see the anvil hammer method. Beijing people are the first to use the fire of ancient humans, and can hunt large animals. Beijing people’s life is short, according to statistics, 68.2% died before the age of 14, more than 50 less than 4.5% years old.
In 1930, the top of the keel was excavated from the ancient human fossils, which lived in 20000 years “. In 1973, it found that the “new hole” between the two’s and the’s, showed that the continuity and development of the people in Beijing.

Through the research on the archaeological data that about 69 million years ago, Peking man, created a distinctive Paleolithic culture, the development of Chinese Paleolithic culture in North China produced a far-reaching impact. The discovery of the Beijing man
Beijing Zhoukoudian
, but also the history of the use of fire for hundreds of thousands of years, they lived in the cave where they left a very thick ash pile.
Zhoukoudian site is located in the southwest of Beijing city in Fangshan District Zhoukou Town, about 50 kilometers away from downtown Beijing. Zhoukoudian site is the famous ancient human fossils, cultural relics and ancient animal fossils in China. Here has 480 life ago 70 million years to 20 million years ago “Peking Man”, dating back about 20 million to 10 million years of the fourth place early Homo sapiens, dating back 3.85 million to 4.2 million years ago the Tianyuan cave people, the Shanding cave people in about 3 million years ago. These ancient human, ancient culture and ancient vertebrate fossil sites, collectively referred to as the “Zhoukoudian site”.
Zhoukoudian site museum, founded in 1953, 1971, China Academy of Sciences earmarked was expanded, and changed its name to “Beijing ape man exhibition hall.

Mountain Resort of Chengde

Mountain Resort building, ranging from two stages.
First stage: from Kangxi four years (1703) to the Kangxi five years (1713), explore the Lake District, Island building, repair the embankment, along with building palaces, pavilions tree and wall, so that the beginning of the Summer Resort a larger scale. Kangxi Emperor Garden in Belle selected to four words inscribed the name of the “thirty-six King.”

The second stage: From Qianlong six years (1741) to nineteen years of Qianlong (1754), Emperor Qianlong of the Mountain Resort on a large scale expansion, build palaces and many sophisticated large landscape architecture. Emperor Qianlong imitation of his grandfather, with the words in the name and title of the “thirty-six King”, collectively known as the Mountain Resort seventy-two King.

Kangxi two decades (1681), the Qing government to strengthen the management of Mongolia’s local consolidate the northern border, more than 350 kilometers away from Beijing established the Mongolian grasslands Hunting. Each fall, the emperor led the nobles, Banners army, and even harem concubines, royal

Chengde Mountain Resort plaque
Chengde Mountain Resort plaque
Tens of thousands of children and grandchildren and other people go Hunting lines around hunting, military training in order to achieve the purpose of preventing the solid defensive side.
In order to solve the emperor along food, housing, between Beijing to Hunting, 2l seat palace have been built, Jehol palace – Mountain Resort is one of them. Mountain Resort and the surrounding temples from Kangxi four years (1703) under construction, to the Qianlong Fifty-seven years (AD 1792) and finally the completion of a project, through the Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong three generations of emperors, which lasted 89 years. British and French troops attacked in north

Chengde Mountain Resort
Chengde Mountain Resort (10)
  Beijing, the Emperor Xianfeng fled here with a group of ministers.
Emperor Qianlong five years to forty-five years (1713-1780), accompanied by the construction of summer resort, surrounded by temples have been built up.

Kangxi Emperor Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty, about six months every year to spend in Chengde, Early Qing Dynasty important political, military, diplomatic and other national and state affairs are handled here. Therefore, the provisional capital of Chengde Mountain Resort will become the second political center outside Beijing. Qianlong met here and had dinner tours E Lute Mongolia Duerbote Daikichi three vehicles Ling, Taiwan Ji Woba Torghut tin, as well as political and religious leader of Tibet, the Sixth Panchen and other important figures, still seen in this connection special envoy Mageerni led the first British mission to China. Qing emperor Jiaqing, Xianfeng both died here. In 1860, British and French troops to attack Beijing, the Qing emperor Xianfeng fled to the Summer Resort refuge in this house approved the “Sino-Russian Treaty of Beijing” and several unequal treaties. Effect of Chinese historical process “yau coup” also originated here. With the decline of the Qing dynasty, the summer resort increasingly decline.

In 1961, the State Council will be listed as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units, the summer resort and the surrounding temples in Puning Temple, Pule temple, Putuo Pope by the temple, xumifusi temple. From 1976 to 2006, the State Council has approved the implementation of the three “Eight Outer Temples in Chengde Mountain Resort decade renovation plan”, defined the “rescue and repair of protection principle, state and local governments have invested several hundred million yuan of special funds for ancient architecture maintenance and landscape renovation, and invested large amounts of funds for cultural relics protection areas surrounding environment comprehensive improvement.

Since August 2010, Chengde Mountain Resort and around the temple cultural heritage protection projects in full swing.

Beauty 5
The project plans to use 3 to 5 years, the central government invested 600000000 yuan of special funds for the restoration and protection of cultural relics and village governance, and identified the ancient architecture protection, cultural heritage protection projects and 3 villa water environment comprehensive treatment project. This renovation project has also set up a strong “think tank”, each project will be based on careful investigation for the “tailored” repair plan. From Chengde Mountain Resort and the surrounding temples and cultural heritage protection project headquarters office and came out of the information, the protection of the progress of the project. Since last year, a total of archaeological exploration, Anyuan Temple restoration, Sumeru Fushou Temple red rescue and 13 projects under construction. The xumifusi Temple red rescue, Mountain Resort of the Qing Dynasty Road 5 project has been completed.

Lhasa Potala Palace

Potala Palace is known as the “Pearl of world ridge of a house”, it is the symbol of Lhasa and Qinghai Tibet Plateau, Tibet is once the power center. The world’s highest and most magnificent palace, a collection of extremely rich cultural relics and Arts & Crafts, also treasured the unique Tibetan culture heritage. Layout of the palace, civil engineering, metal smelting, painting, sculpture and other aspects of it are famous in the world, reflects the Tibetan, the Han, Mongolian, Manchu craftsmen superb skills and Tibetan architectural art of great achievements. In December 1994, Potala Palace was selected for the world heritage list.

wall         buildomg

The Potala Palace the snow palace in Lhasa City Hongshan hill, stands, is the Lighthouse of the snow covered plateau, in any corner of the Lhasa, Tibet, people’s devout Koubai closure of the palm of your hand forever pointing to her. At the same time, this has a history in 1300, the world’s highest altitude, the most magnificent palace is also unlimited extension of Tibetan culture, is truly a world heritage, you can touch, can be in-depth, without the decoration, but the real with the Tibetan architectural art of the palace fort. Have the opportunity to enter the Potala Palace inside the Tibetans, will this as a reward and the gift of life, a lot of tourists is no exception.


walll         blue


Potala Palace was not built at the beginning of the scale, the expansion of the future, the scale is gradually expanded. A few of the world and Darai also has participated in the design and expansion of the palace, and a huge cost. Built until 1936 thirteen Darai Lama Lingta palace, Potala Palace before the formation of the current scale. So far, it has also become a real palace, temple and Pagoda Temple composed of three-in-one multi-storey buildings. Sometimes this building is like a mysterious symbols, attract numerous righteous – Gu defected to Tibet and to, rushed to the Tubo Period which began with the palace of love to.

Emperor Qin Shihuang and the terracotta warriors in Shaanxi

In December 1987, Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor and Terracotta Army were included in the world heritage list.
Qin Shi Huang mausoleum is located east of Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province, 35 kilometers of Lintong district within the territory of the people’s Republic of China, the tomb of the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty is in the Chinese history the first multi-ethnic centralized state of Emperor Qin Shihuang in 246 BC to 208 BC construction, but also the history of China’s first emperor mausoleum. The buried with huge scale, rich in ancient imperial mausoleum of the first emperor mausoleum, is the largest. According to the history of the year, Qin Shihuang is the construction of the 700000 craftsmen, the construction time of up to 38 years.
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor mausoleum park and two parts from the burial area. The cemetery covers an area of nearly 8 square kilometers, built outside the city, two, Fengtu is a square cone. The original Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor mound about 115 meters high, Ling based approximate square, like a bucket cover. The top is flat, and the waist is slightly in the shape of a ladder. Existing 76 meters high, 345 meters long from east to west, 350 meters wide from north to south, covers an area of Mausoleum of 120750 square meters and a large number of ground building remains and funerary objects.

Mausoleum underground palace center is placed in the coffin of the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty, around the tomb of a burial pits and tombs more than 400, wide range and 56.25 square kilometers. Main compensate burial pit copper car, Ma Keng, exotic pit, stable pits and terracotta warriors and horses pits etc., over the years has over 50000 pieces of important historical relics unearthed. 1980 excavations unearthed two groups by large painted bronze chariots and horses – – high car and car is China found so far the largest body, most decorative, system structure and driving the most realistic and most complete ancient bronze chariots and horses, was hailed as the “crown of bronze”.

The essence of the Satavahana found since 1974, in the cemetery East 1.5 kilometers from the burial pits of terracotta warriors and horses, finished shape arrangement, the area amounted to 2 million square meters of above, the unearthed pottery figurine of 8000 chariots, and tens of thousands of pieces of real weapons and other cultural relics; one on the pit “Youjun, buried and live a real horse with figurines, pottery Mayo six thousand pieces; No. 2 pit” left army, figurines, pottery horses 1300 more than chariots 89 of the cars, is a by the infantry, cavalry and chariots three branches of mixed marshalling curved array and terracotta pit, pit No. warrior Figurines 68, chariot vehicles, horses horse, is a commander of the underground army command. This position is the epitome of the Qin army organization. In 1980 unearthed bronze chariot cemetery on the west side of large 2 times. Caused by shock and concern around the world, these by then army formation in the figurines, pottery horses for Qin Dynasty military establishment, operation way, riding infantry equipment to provide the image of the kind of information. Terracotta Army is known as the “eighth wonder of the world”, “one of the great discoveries in the history of Archaeology in twentieth Century.””. The terracotta realism in the history of the past as China sculpture art in the world. Is now in the one or two, three, the establishment of Terracotta Army Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor Museum, opening up.

The Taishan Mountain –the best in all the Mountain



The Taishan Mountain is Chinese earliest mountains, “the first of the Five Sacred Mountains”, and “the first mountain” reputation is Fengshan emperors sacrifice of the mountain, which has the historical position of supremacy, Mount Tai is a natural history, art museum, only in the central axis of the Mount Tai existing more than 1800 all kinds of stone, Taishan Dai Temple with Beijing hall and said is one of three major Chinese palace.

Tai mountain 3

In 1987, Taishan was listed as the world’s cultural and natural dual heritage by UNESCO World Commission. Evaluation of the World Heritage Committee: Sacred Mount Tai, two thousand years has been the object of emperors to worship, the mountains of humanistic masterpieces and the natural landscape perfect fusion together. Taishan has always been the spiritual source of Chinese artists and scholars, and it is the permanent sign of ancient Chinese civilization and faith,

Taishan has a long history of legends. According to legend, bixiayuanjun exclusive to Taishan, by all means, overcame many opponents, finally became the God of mountain. Even so, Bixia Yuanjun still greedy, she relied on his father the emperor’s power, expanding the scope of their jurisdiction, thus causing the indignation of the parties immortals, we have to in charge of Jiang Ziya at the helm of the gods to complain.

Tai mountain 4

One day, Jiang Ziya with “Fengshen Bang” came to Taishan, Bixia Yuanjun designated jurisdiction over fan trapped: from the very top of Mount Tai, around each of the tube 50, Bixia Yuanjun too small ground, immediately and Jiang Ziya quarrel up.

Jiang Ziya is not angry, good words to say: “Yuan Jun! If you think the ground is small, we can talk about it!” how to discuss the law?” Bixiayuanjun ask.

Jiang Ziya is not angry, good words to say: “Yuan Jun! If you think the ground is small, we can talk about it!” how to discuss the law?” Bixiayuanjun ask.

Jiang Ziya calmly said: “you can find something to, throw it to the foot of the mountain, things fall where, you tube to go, you see, okay?” Bixiayuanjun thought, by my ability and effort, throwing a hundred is no problem then promised said: “good, let’s do it! However, we can speak to, who are not allowed to go back!”

“That’s settled then., never go back!” Jiang Ziya be poker-faced, said very seriously.

Tai mountain 1

At this time, stooped to pick up sized stones, tried to thrown it down, Jiang Ziya quickly stopped, “said slowly! There are stones everywhere, you put it down the mountain to find it? If found, the other gods do not recognize nor do ah! I see, or throw something others are not the best things.”

Bixia Yuanjun think this word is rational, but the moment they can’t find the right things, and muttered: “I threw something good?”

Ginger Yuya slowly to enlightenment of way: “look according to me, didn’t you wear the shoes of others. You throw it out, not only good looking, others did not dare to admit.”

Bixiayuanjun listened, thought: Yes, I put a beautiful shoe off the mountain, one in the hand, who dare to admit?! So I took off a shoes, with all his strength to throw down the hill. After finished throwing embroidered shoes, Jiang Ziya and Bixia Yuanjun and other deities together at the foot of the mountain, find the the embroidered shoes. I saw only embroidered shoes with upward, head towards the ground in on the ground, the shape of a small workshop doors. They calculate distance, from this place to the utmost, only 20. At this time, just know bixiayuanjun in the Jiang Ziya plan, but not back, but by default.

Later, people here built a square door, named daizongfang, became the starting point of Mount Taishan.

Tai mountain 2

The Great Wall

The Great Wall has a high tourism value and historical and cultural significant, now hydrocarbons by carefully the development of repair, Shanhaiguan, Juyongguan, Simatai, Mutian Valley and Jiayuguan pass pat become round of Chinese and foreign tourist destination. Ascend a height to enjoy a distant view, the ancient battlefield of the iron horse Bei Jin seems to be in Yao plates, now, the great wall and the gum and the Jinyu tower, Rome’s Colosseum, Italy’s Leaning Tower of Pisa on PI fishing net is one of the world’s seven fire admitted is old-fashioned and culture of the Chinese nation Feng broken and wisdom, a symbol of the Chinese nation’s blood Ma phase Yonghe national spirit.

Hover      The Great Wall


The magnificent Great Wall off the ancient Chinese people created through the wonders of the world into one of, a monument in the human civilization is also a little while, according to historical records section, from the Warring States period, more than 20 please Hou and feudal dynasty had built the Great Wall, the earliest Chu, respect for the defense of the northern nomadic nationality or the country, began to arm built the Great Wall. Then, Qi, boil, Wei, Zhao, Qin and other countries based on the same objective also began to build their own great wall. Tongyiliuguo Qin, Qin Shi Huang sent if the name generals Mengtian Northern Expedition Hun, the countries of the great wall together, West Lintao, east to Liaodong, stretching more than 10000 person that was the Great Wall. But today we can see the main the Great Wall.

The Great Wall1


In fact, the length of the sum of the the Great Wall spring and Autumn Warring States period, many states and later dynasties built more than 50000 meters. So the Great Wall is called the last two thousand years, one hundred thousand miles, the great works wonders.

Along the way, I experienced how much chicken frost and snow, trudge through many dangerous mountain Badwater, Meng Jiangnu did not shout a sound bitter, not shed a drop of MI. Relying on the indomitable perseverance, relying on to her husband deeply love she finally came to the Great Wall. Meng Jiangnu a site a site to find a, but still do not see her husband disappeared. In the end, she had the courage to ask the workers who were about to go to work: “do you have a Fan Xiliang here?” Migrant workers said: “there is such a person, the new.” Meng Jiangnu heard, hurriedly ask: “where is he” migrant workers said: “dead, dead bodies buried in the city of foot!”

The Great Wall view


Hear the consumption, good like eye Yao thunderbolt general, Meng Jiangnu just before the eyes of the sensory layer, a sad, mark up, cried the entire three days and three nights, just cry Tianhundian, the sky became more and more gloomy, the wind more and more fierce, just listen to “crash” sound, a section of the Great Wall was crying down, exposed is fan Xiliang dead bodies.