the Mogao Grottoes

Mogao Grottoes1
A Tang Dynasty inscription records that the first cave in the Mogao Grottoes was made in 366 A.D. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) listed the Mogao Grottoes on the World Heritage List in 1987. According to archaeologists, it is the greatest and most consummate repository of Buddhist art in the world.

Despite erosion and man-made destruction, the 492 caves are well preserved, with frescoes covering an area of 45,000 square metres, more than 2,000 colored sculptured figures and five wooden eaves overhanging the caves.

Many pavilions, towers, temples, pagodas, palaces, courtyards, towns and bridges in the murals provide valuable materials for the study of Chinese architecture. Other paintings depict Chinese and foreign musical performances, dancing and acrobatics.
Mogao Grottoes2

The ‘Cave for Preserving Scriptures’, was discovered by a Taoist monk Wang Yuanlu in 1900. The cave contains more than 50,000 sutras, documents and paintings covering a period from the 4th to the 11th centuries. It was one of China’s most significant archaeological finds. These precious relics are of great historical and scientific value.
Dunhuang has 492 caves, with 45,000 square meters of frescos, 2, 415 painted statues and five wooden-structured caves. The Mogao Grottoes contain priceless paintings, sculptures, some 50,000 Buddhist scriptures, historical documents, textiles, and other relics that first stunned the world in the early 1900s.

The Mogao Caves, or Mogao Grottoes (also known as the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas and Dunhuang Caves) form a system of 492 temples 25 km (15.5 miles) southeast of the center of Dunhuang, an oasis strategically located at a religious and cultural crossroads on the Silk Road, in Gansu province, of China. The caves contain some of the finest examples of Buddhist art spanning a period of 1,000 years. Construction of the Buddhist cave shrines began in 366 AD as places to store scriptures and art. The Mogao Caves are the best known of the Chinese Buddhist grottoes and, along with Longmen Grottoes and Yungang Grottoes, are one of the three famous ancient sculptural sites of China
According to local legend, in 366 AD a Buddhist monk, Le Zun , had a vision of a thousand Buddhas and inspired the excavation of the caves he envisioned. The number of temples eventually grew to more than a thousand. As Buddhist monks valued austerity in life, they sought retreat in remote caves to further their quest for enlightenment. From the 4th until the 14th century, Buddhist monks at Dunhuang collected scriptures from the west while many pilgrims passing through the area painted murals inside the caves. The cave paintings and architecture served as aids to meditation, as visual representations of the quest for enlightenment, as mnemonic devices, and as teaching tools to inform illiterate Chinese about Buddhist beliefs and stories.
Mogao Grottoes3
The murals cover 450,000 square feet. The caves were walled off sometime after the 11th century after they had become a repository for venerable, damaged and used manuscripts and hallowed paraphernalia.

The summer palace

The summer palace

West of the summer palace in Beijing, after the famous yuanmingyuan was destroyed, my country 4,000 years of feudal history saved to the end of the day an “Imperial”. 13 Li in circumference at the summer palace, with mountains and lakes within the Park. Pavilions, trees and flowers, corridors meander, bridge Pavilion, can be described as beautiful.
Basis of the Lake in the summer palace, Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties, after operation. Largest construction began 15 years of Qianlong of the Qing dynasty (1750), whose real name is Qing Yi Park, mount longevity, the Lake Kunming. In 1860, Qingyi garden and the old Summer Palace by British and French allied forces destroyed, half were destroyed, only building complex mountains made of glazed tiles.
14 year of the Guangxu reign (1888), Na Lashi dictatorship, the Empress Dowager Cixi make sushi for yourself, embezzlement of naval military construction of the mountain lake, was renamed the summer palace.
Summer Palace scale, layout complex, Mr Lin after dividing it into mountains, mountain, East Palace gate, South Lake and the West Bank into four parts.
Above, North Gate, after entering the mountain. The summer palace
Summer Palace State monument.
The summer palace
Ancient stone bridge across the Suzhou River. Before blessing arches, built in Qianlong, rebuilt after 1949, located in pine Hall entrance. Songtang is a seat ancient pine towering of big garden, Qingyi Park Shi, pine Hall of North, and East, and South three surface the has 1 seat Archway, East Archway problem amount: Zhan forest (surface East), and Lotus territories (surface West), North Archway problem amount CI Fu (surface North), and Hui for (surface South), West Archway problem amount treasure (surface East), and Van Gogh days (surface West). Are the only remaining operation blessing Archway, face South. Yellow Glazed tile roof.
The summer palace
Suzhou River, water temple Music Gallery, like southern town. This is the Suzhou Street, 1860 when dozens of shops were burned by the big powers. Now the landscape of 1986 rebuilt. The summer palace
The mountain forest is surrounded by road bends, the landscape is deep. This temple in the middle of “virtual Meru” sites. Four Chau complex, located in the “virtual Meru”. Founded during the reign of Emperor Qianlong, Xianfeng ten years (1860) burns out, Guangxu original 3 layers of sweet rock Indian Court converted one-story Hall, South Giuliano Chau into the entrance hall. 1981 rebuilt four continents, eight small States and 4 fan Tower. Reconstruction of four continents are basically maintaining the original architectural forms and styles, but sub-8 small flat-roofed reinforced concrete structure is used, ground into cement. The summer palace
Meru virtual sites, building 2, three octagonal tower, four three-beam white marble base, sides are engraved with Buddhist scriptures, is a relic of former Alexander en yanshou Temple. Building 2-stone animals, its style specifically, has the typical characteristics of the Tibetan culture. Stone animals on both sides of the 4 circle sumeru pedestal, above the original put 4 dedicated to Emperor worship burn incense in the censer.

The summer palace
Tile drops.
The summer palace
Red, white, yellow, green, clean color.
The summer palace
1 green next to the small island in the East of Hanoi Tower. The summer palace
West and the Hanoi Tower.
The summer palace
This is the tallest building in the longevity Hill, ocean of wisdom. Is a full masonry into the beamless Hall, formed by the horizontal-and-Arch. Construction outer all decorated with beautiful yellow-and green-colored glazed tiles, upper cover top with a small amount of purple and blue tiles, and whole building is colorful, sumptuous. Especially in embedded in the outer wall of the Temple of thousands of glass Buddha more feature-rich. “Ocean of wisdom” a word for the Buddhist term, was meant to praise the Buddha’s wisdom like the sea boundless Dharma.
There are several sites on the mountain, in the midst of pines road turning drear.
Bed and breakfast in Yun Cheng Guan. Founded during the reign of Emperor Qianlong. Through this level, should be considered before the arrival of the mountain.

Little days. Couplet: docking warm liuyun draw bar the new Fairview, kiosk virtual month blessed little Peng pot.
XING bridge, was built in the reign, when Emperor Guangxu to rebuild is a three-hole bridge. Bridge named after the grass and algae in the water, East to West across the river. Between the bridge Pavilion faces 3, heavy architectural top. Granite bridge, Ting column foot Lions 2. At each end of the bridge there is a 4 column, 3/f, soaring arches. East arch question volume: Wei Cui, Fei Xiang, the West arch question volume: smoke Islands, dolomite. Arch built for rehabilitation in November 1992.
Qing Yan Fang, commonly known as stone boat, is a large stone boat, and “Haiqing Ho yan” meaning. Summer Palace is the only Western-style buildings. It is the successor to the Ming dynasty Temple of static release. Xiuqingyi of Qianlong garden, modified for the ship and changed its name to “stone boat”. Stone boat is 36 meters long, marble sculpture built into the ship. Hull built a two-story ship building, ship bottom tile flooring, window stained glass, brick decoration on the top. When it rains, the rain fell on the roof by four hollow pillars, by the hulls of four leading into the Lake. Drainage design method for now.
The summer palace
Elaborate carvings.
The summer palace
Cruise West Bank binbb of the six bridges crossing, founded during the reign of, formerly known as Sang Zhuqiao, due to Emperor Xianfeng Yi storage drive away instead of taking the name of the book of songs in the poetry of the binbb wind for the bridge. Xian Feng (1860) bridge Pavilion was destroyed and rebuilt when the Emperor Guangxu. Bridge is located in North-South direction, the bridge Pavilion rectangle, SI JI architectural roof, eaves.
The summer palace
West dyke was built at Hangzhou Sudi. Blue Willow, natural open park in beautiful mountain in Yamagata and Jade Peak Pagoda shade shadow line if we go to the mountain, was charge taken as part of the landscape. From Lake West, park landscape and Lake Hills Park seamless, this is a outstanding example of using borrowing practices in Chinese gardens.
The summer palace
Jing Ming buildings in West Bank. Founded during the reign of Emperor Qianlong, Fan Zhongyan floor name came from the Song dynasty in the Yueyang “spring and Jing ming, placid, skylight, yibiwanqing,” sentence. Architecture forms of imitation cool off since the Ting Zhao Mengfu of the Yuan dynasty map, for four-sided porch, including building 3 rooms, equipped with f-2, inter-face 3, Hall House 5 rooms, porch House, 5 2 NET room, Pavilion 2, veranda-66. Xian Feng (1860)-view tower was destroyed by British and French troops. In 1991 began rebuilding. Jing Ming/f building 1, North-South building, 1. Three are 2-storey building, between the upper and lower faces 3, depth 1. Below the main building surrounded by buildings. View Tower main building veranda House Hill, building shed of Hill.
Nanhu Lake in the summer palace on the island contain a virtual church, is the famous ten arch bridge on the left. The summer palace
Han virtual church formerly known as Qianlong built the three-story mansion-Wang Chan-GE, Jiaqing converted a culvert virtual of Fame, is that after listening to the rain and to ensure perfect. Xiang Shan Jian Rui ying Qianlong reviewing military exercise in 1860 by British and French forces burned down, during the reign of reconstruction. Empress Dowager Cixi was this review the performances of the Naval College. The summer palace
Ten arch bridge at dusk, afterglow last fall. The summer palace
Shi Qi Kong Qiao, like a jade belt across the Lake. Bridge is 150 meters long, 8 meters wide, arched. Built in 15 year of Qianlong in Qing dynasty (1750). The summer palace
Carved on the stone railings on both sides a different size and shape of the Lions more than 500 only. Both ends of the top meter of four stone animals, brave and heroic.
The summer palace
Shi Qi Kong Qiao Dong, stands on an open square profiles such as kiosks. Profiles such as the Pavilion was built in Qianlong period, commonly known as the Octagon Pavilion. More than 140 square meters, inside and outside the Pavilion has three times 24 columns and 16 columns. Pavilion gardens top of architectural forms, shapes stretch and stable. Summer Palace is not the Eastern wall that year, North is the wide waters, tingnan dry hectares paddy fields, Pavilion overlooking the endless, profiles such as kiosks, hence the name. Profile Ting such spectacular, is to ten arch bridge and West of high island’s storied pavilions echoed. This Pavilion is the largest in all booths in Beijing, as well as existing similar domestic architecture of the Crown.
The summer palace
Looking through the Gallery to hear birds Pavilion. Originally built by the Qianlong emperor for his mother to the theatre, there are two stages, the ancients often use oriole bird calls the beautiful sounds of music, hence the name. Xian Feng (1860) was burned by British and French troops, while Guangxu alterations.
The summer palace
Viewed from. Located in the central part of the mountain in front of longevity Hill hillside, building in a square 21 meters high on a pedestal, is a building with eight three-layer eaves; GE is 41 meters high, in which 8 big iron, Lei Muk Shue, Optimus Prime. The original GE Xianfeng ten years (1860) was burned by British and French troops, around 17 (1891) took 780,002 money to rebuild, Guangxu 20 years (1894) completed, is the biggest project in the summer palace. Tower houses the “lead” for the Royal incense. The summer palace
Viewed from the left side there is a small Buddhist temples, the five parties of the Western Pavilion, reservoir in the East for the runner. Wheels hidden by a main hall, two runners and a tablet form. Stone front title: stele of the longevity Hill, Kunming Lake. The summer palace
Rows of Cloud Gate. -House door, face five, one Summit, in front of a pair of bronze lions.
The summer palace
Buddha Pavilion cloud Temple in the front row, before the Palace of parting clouds yunhui Yu Yu is the wooden Archway. Four columns of three bays, red columns, turquoise color. Yunhui Yu Yu, meaning valuable buildings and sky as brilliant.
Palace of parting clouds on both sides of stalagmites.
Leave the viewed from the area to the East, walked down the aisle through the Qing Hua Hin, kiosks, this “wood.” Winding streets, xijinqianhua, Royal-free exclusive rewards, more of a quiet life, Hermitage Woods and yearning.
The Lake, watching the wall Windows of different shapes and walk on the stone railings of the trail, my fame.
Clouds offer color. It and the forbidden city can see different cover is a treasure of Empress Dowager Cixi celebrated her Imperial brush. About Empress Dowager Cixi is getting old, courage is on the rise, these four words will not in any way come from Na Lashi.
This pane style like from Shanxi province moved to the wing walls of the compound.
East Gate area of the Palace, like the mansion in the city, blocked the entrance, confusion in the House. Around here, to see the front of the Lake. Mr Lin said the Palace, Garden of virtuous, three group of buildings is the summer palace Le Shoutang layout on the greatest weakness.
When the politics of the time, everything was shackled.
Palace of the Empress Dowager Cixi and Guangxu Emperor sits at hearings, meetings with foreign guests in the main hall. Formerly known as Temple of the diligent, Guangxu rebuilt, renamed the Palace. East to face seven lata, flanked by North and South side Hall, in front of renshou, outside the North and Nine Ministers, Chen Feng, copper, copper Dragon, the copper tripod, carved very beautifully. The summer palace
Copper Dragon.
The summer palace
Longevity stone. 12 year of the Guangxu reign (1886) moved when the reconstruction of the summer palace, green run, form, like a birthday. The summer palace
The East Palace gate. Main entrance of the Palace, sit toward the East and lintel eaves all oil painting. Six red door inlaid with yellow nail, hanging under the eaves in the middle of Kowloon gold plaque that read “Summer Palace,” the three characters, as the Guangxu Emperor Imperial brush problem. In front of Yu DAO Dan PI cloud Dragon stone carved with two long xizhu, carved by the qianlongnian, is from the ruins of yuanmingyuan (An Yougong) up to, it is a symbol of dignity of the emperor. East Palace gate that year only for the emperors of the Qing dynasty.
The world heritage monument.
Culvert false arch, is located in the East Palace gate is about 200 metres away. Built in 1750, four seven-floor, main building of amount of stone engraved with “culvert deficiency”, “net show,” the Qianlong handwritten books, metaphor natural picture of the magnificent landscape of the Royal gardens at the summer palace.

Historic centre of Macau

Historic centre of Macau
According to the 29th session of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO of the United Nations General Assembly announced on July 15, 2005, China’s “historic centre of Macau” successful inclusion in the World Heritage list, China so far has the 31st “World Heritage” project.

“Macau history city” is a to Macau old city for core of history blocks, to adjacent of square and street connection and into, including a-Ma Temple Qian to, and Asia Po well Qian to, and gang top Qian to, and rules of procedure of the Pavilion Qian to, and lobby Qian to, and Board Zhang Hall Qian to, and Jesus will Memorial Square, and Dove nest Qian to, 8 a square space; and a-Ma Temple, and port authority building, and Zheng home big housing, and St old stared blankly junior Church, and Joseph repair hospital and the St Hall, and gang top theatre, and Hotung library building, and shengaosi set Church, and Home Department building, and three street Hall (Temple) , Mercy Hall building, lobby (the Cathedral), home House, Rose Hall, ruins, Nacha Temple, old wall ruins, Monte, St Anthony Church, site of Oriental Foundation, Christian cemeteries, Guia Fort (including Guia lighthouse and our Lady of the snow Palace Chapel) 22 historical buildings. Both China’s first Western-style University (Saint Paul’s College), the first Western-style theatre, also with the first modern Lighthouse off the coast of China, and Lingnan-style Temple, late Qing dynasty merchant’s yard.

“Historic centre of Macau” saved more than 400 years of cultural exchange between Macao’s culture, it is existing in China’s long, the largest and best preserved and most concentrated, building to the West of each other, Western-style buildings within the historic centre.

[Traffic]: history city tour guide: a-Ma Temple-port authority building (is located in a-Ma Temple left of Mage oblique Xiang)-(ahead by Mage Street) Zheng home big housing-Asia Po well Qian to-(ahead by buildings Street to wind Shun Hall Street) St old stared blankly junior Church-(back to three BA Tsai Street) Joseph repair hospital Templar-(right folding to gang top Qian to) shengaosi set Church, and gang top theatre and Hotung library-(new road next) Home Department building-(opposite) rules of procedure of the Pavilion Qian to-(left) three street Hall (Temple)- (Right) mercy Hall building-(turned left) Macau Bishop seat Hall (lobby)-(to lobby Xiang) Lu home big housing-(Board Zhang Hall Qian to of left) rose Hall-(junior BA street of end) junior BA arch-(right) Cannon Taiwan-(next) Macau Museum-(left) old wall site-Nezha Temple-(to left turn out spent Wang Tang Street) St Ando Nepal Church-Dove nest Qian to-East Foundation site-Christian Cemetery double-East looked Ocean Fort, and lighthouse- House of the Virgin snow Templar (peak of dongwangyangshan on top of a mountain on the peninsula of Macau).

The Ming tombs

The Ming tombs

The Ming tombs are located in the territory of the Northwestern suburbs of Beijing Changping County, back against the tianshou, is surrounded on three sides by trend, up to 100 square kilometers and was buried 13 emperors in Ming and another concubine tomb of Tomb 6, Prince 1 called “tombs”, is China’s largest mausoleum of the emperor.

Since the year 1368, Ming Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang of the Ming dynasty capital in Nanjing, to 1644 ad mingsizongzhu by check hanged himself in coal mountain (now Beijing Jingshan Park) for a total of 16 emperors. Buried Zhu Yuanzhang Ming Xiaoling mausoleum in Nanjing, built the Emperor Zhu Yunwen “battle of Jing” is unknown, their tombs into historical mystery; the jingtai Emperor Zhu Qiyu in history “the door” died and was buried in the western suburbs of Beijing kingsoft. The remaining 13 emperors are buried near the tianshou. From Ming seven years (1409) began construction of the mausoleum, the first year of shunzhi (1644) built SI ling, after 240 years, Tian Shan Ming tomb under construction have been almost continuously. From days Shoushan South of Dragon, and Tiger II mountain middle of Shinto, into Ling District, its buried order followed by for: long Ling (Cheng zu Zhu di), and offered Ling (Renzong Zhu Gaozhi), and Jing Ling (Xuan Zong Zhu Zhanji), and Yu ling (Pope Zhu Qizhen), and Mau Ling (Gazette cases Zhu Jianshen), and Thai Ling (filial piety cases Zhu blesses Tang), and Kang Ling (Wu Zong Zhu Houzhao), and Yong Ling (Sejong Zhu Hou熜), and Zhao Ling (Mu Zongzhu contains Hou), and set Ling (Shenzong Zhu Yijun), and celebrates Ling (light cases Zhu changluo), and de Ling (fit cases Zhu by school), and thought Ling (thought cases Zhu by check). Area of ancillary buildings such as the Palace, whisk and the sacrificial offering of the temple Department, Shen Gong Jian, slaughter Pavilion, orchards all over the area, reflects not only the regulation of imperial tombs of the Ming dynasty tombs, but also the quiet gardens of the Ming dynasty style.

In the Ming dynasty, Ming tombs was a heavily fortified area, Ming dynasty along the area around 10 mountain pass, built with walls and fortresses, guarded by heavily armed day and night, long time reached tens of thousands of people. Have provisions of the laws: the mausoleum will be allowed in tree felling, soil, stone, upon pain of death. Although later was burned by water and nature, but the overall architecture of the Ming tombs and a large number of ground and underground heritage is extremely rich. Folklore stories arising from the tombs, but also Pretty and colorful. Where the tombs of the Ming tombs district, cultural, all shining with luster of material civilization and spiritual civilization of the Chinese nation and leaving ugly and evil of the feudal society of the positive.

It was recorded in Changping District, Gu Yanwu of the landscape in mind: Ming for five years (1407) in July, “empress Xu BEng, shangming rites Zhao 羾 Ming Liao Junqing Forum, JI in changpingxian Loess Hills in the East. And visit and the tianshou, with seven years (1409) May Mao mausoleum, … … Naturally, long yan Ling around for a domain. “Since 1407 select mausoleum site, to 1409Year designated, which lasted two years, Director Ling site, has received a lot of proposals were Emperor Zhu di No. Is said to have first selected in Changping small Tangshan area, for Cheng zu surname Zhu, and “pig” homophonic, pig is fear hot of, so waste off; estuary of TU home camp North has seat Dragon Wo, Feng Shui very better, but for fear pig into has Tu Jia was slaughter and waste to; and has Changping southwest of Yang Shan, mountain Hou has a village called “Wolf son Yu”, also is cannot with. Last by Jiangxi du geomancer Liao Junqing (is Ming tombs Ling District of Chief select Home) selected changpingxian of loess mountain, mountain Qian has seat Kang home graves of village, West has a Acorn Ling mountain, East of loop called dry water river, plus loess mountain of Feng Shui, Zhu di Pro-to survey, think pig to has here, has bran (Kang), and Acorn eat, also has Gan (dry) water thirsty, is Zhu Jia eternal development of JI to, was was finds for Ling site. These are stories, of course, matters are decided by the loess hills topography: mountains, such as arches, such as screen, Middle flat, soil and water rich, Nankai inlet at both ends and Tiger Mountain and the mountain of Longshan two situation: a witness to, and Loess Hills is like a big Chair. Zhu changling tomb sites of their choosing, on the “Chair” of Central. Fully reflects the tombs of the emperors of China, and wantonly Xuan Yang Feng Shui and divine nature in order to achieve the objective of consolidating political power.

Changling, back in accordance with Shoushan, Zhu Ling building at the Ming tombs the earliest is also the largest ground construction of a mausoleum of the emperor. The mausoleum after the front circle, covering an area of about 100,000 square meters. Grace blessing, blessing en Palace, Tower three yards, and depth of approximately 350 meters. Mausoleum of construction material to be used strictly and fine construction. Especially made of Nanmu blessing grace Temple eaves Wu Temple, 9 rooms, depth 5, more than 1900 square meter temple area alone. 32 pillar of Phoebe, about 12 meters high, diameter at breast height is 1 m from top to bottom, without oil, and unadorned. Whole top is composed of 60 wood pillars support the temple, standing in the House, could still smell the wood fragrance. This temple has become a rare and precious cultural relics in China’s ancient architecture.

11 year of Yongle (1413), Yuen Ling underground Palace was built, and empress Xu died 6 years (eldest daughter founders Xu da Ming) coffin in the King’s second son (hanwang) under the accompany, moved Tian Shou Shanchang ling, Changping District. Dr LO Wing-Lok 22-year (1424), Zhu di personally for the 5th time, June, arrived at the lannamu River (present-day Mongolia in and northeast of forest City), food spoils and returned to Beijing. In July, in a place called Elm (now territory of duolun County, Inner Mongolia) died at the age of 65. Due to the death of all of a sudden, accompanied by the eunuch Ma and scholar Yang Rong agreed, secret not give obituary notice. Way back to the city “living eating as usual.” Returned to Beijing in August and December, reopen the underground the Ling DAO Xuan Gong, Zhu di buried. Is the existence of a secret of Zhu di’s death, itself since the spread of several legends. Ling did not, which are widely considered long Zhu remains, buried the shot he spear. Zhu di, I am in pursuit of the enemy into a cave and never come out again, leaving only a spear. Of course, this is just legend.

Xian mausoleum burial Renzong Zhu Gaozhi was eldest son Zhu di, the reign of only 9 months. His deathbed Testament: “frugal”, Xian ling’s overall size much smaller than the mausoleum. Buried with Empress Zhang, according to unofficial accounts: first year of Hung Shing (1425), seven in early April, on the Palace Zhang Huanghou birthday, the “season”. Imperial concubine Guo should be congratulated, and make a toast to the Queen, but she did not drink, and Renzong Emperor looked at present is said to the Queen, there are suspicious, please? Then drink the glass of wine. Guo looked at startled, back to his house, hanged himself after death. Soon, Renzong fell ill, then collapsing dead. Zhang Huanghou survived, lived for more than 60 years old. Renzong eldest son Zhu Zhanji ascended the throne, when his Jing ling, its size is no more than offering mausoleum. In the tombs, larger apart from Chang ling, Yong Ling and Ming tombs.

Yong Ling was Zhu Hou熜 and Chen, Fang Shi, du’s three concubines buried tombs. It contains: Zhu Hou熜 15, ascended the throne, the era name of Emperor Jiajing, the reign of 45 years. He was a cousin of Wu Zong Zhu Houzhao, Wu Zong Ying he, no child was Testament throne. The throne soon, “meaning” basis, regardless of her courtiers against, offered King’s father had died as a sacrifice to the Emperor, his mother Chiang hailed as Empress Dowager, to rebuild the graveyard of their parents, Ling, recommended. This is the history of Ming’s famous “big battle”. In this debate, Sejong ordered arrested more than 190 people, and killed 17 people on the spot, put down the “imperial exams”, and his identity has become a regular. Zhu Hou熜 is like Alchemy, for the sake of immortality, his harem and some Warlocks Alchemy. Alchemy ingredients other than minerals such as mercury is said to be still need girl’s menarche menstrual blood compatibility. Recorded: Jiajing (1522-1566) across the country have repeatedly 8-14, the daughter of hundreds of mining into the Palace, some maids have no future and committed suicide. 21 year of Jiajing (1542) in October broke the famous “Imperial”. Sejong end consort Cao drink and sleep in the Palace, Palace maid Yang Jinying, who with the rope tight around his neck, thinking he had been strangled, maids came apart. Queen Fang Shi know this feeling rushed to the scene, to be saved. Later, Yang Jinying, more than 20 people, regardless of “zhe in the city of” beheading. Sejong fright while busy moved out of the Palace and lived in Westfield wanshougongda 24 years old until before his death, return to the Palace. During Sejong building Yong ling, 11To view, Yongling shape “magnificent fine, Chang ling less.” Due to his Taoism, Yong Ling Palace according to the Taoist “kokonoe Inquisition” was built. Legend during the viewing, Yang Cuiling Shou House of his and said, “my mausoleum was finished? “Squire courtier quickly replied:” outside the walls there is a outside Rochester yet built. “In this way, Yong Ling and Chang ling along the outer walls, forming characteristics of the heavy door wall.

Ling Wan Lidi is Zhu Yijun and filial end Xiao Jing mausoleum buried two wives of 3 people. Zhu Yijun is the longest-reigning Emperor Ming emperor (48 years), 12 years of Wanli (1584), 22, Wan Lidi Zhu Yijun in the style of the mausoleum of his grandfather – Yong Ling to build his mausoleum. Until 18 years of Wanli (1590) was built in June, lasted 6 years, the consumption of silver 8,000,002, equal to the national two-year land tax revenue. Main building and Yong ling is similar, but its size and material selection, construction practices, and much more than the Yong ling. After Qing dynasty scholar Liang studied tombs affirms Junli splendor of dingling, that construction of the Ming tombs are “exhaustive House of money, poor artisans skillfully” is very pertinent. History, however, completion of the dingling, but time and time again by fire. It contains: in 1644, Li Zicheng’s peasant army under the leadership of Beijing when he passed the Ming tombs, Kang, concentration, zhaosan, had set fire to the mausoleum, Tomb building has not yet been completely destroyed on the ground. The Qing army after the Qing dynasty Regent Wang Duoer gun in retaliation for Wan Lidi had broken the Jin dynasty in Fangshan (now Beijing Fangshan County territory) of zu ling, also the blessing of dingling en surface buildings, such as the demolition of the temple. Dynasty, in order to ease the national problem, the way to remove small, reconstruction of Yong ling, ling’s main building on the ground. In 1914, the tombs of the landlords for area management, Ling was a fire, fire 3rd reportedly does not extinguish, grace grace blessing and blessing the temple only bare plinth, surface buildings were burned down. In the village of dingling underground Palace Southeast of dingling, was burnt out, leaving only Ling village, half of the door pillars. Today, the village on the site of the dingling, had turned into a piece of fruit.

Dingling excavations began in May 1956, after a year of hard work, dingling “underground Palace” the mystery was revealed. A large number of precious cultural relics unearthed from, one of the most amazingly Yi Zhu Jun’s Crown and the Queen’s Coronet. Gold Crown called wings good Crown, a height of 24 cm. Is made of very fine gold wire woven, upper Crown set with two Golden Dragon play bead, look lively. Reportedly, dynasty, Yi Zhu Jun during the tour, he likes to take a gold silk hair tired Crown, Python on Dragon coils more than priceless. Discovery of Gold Crown, confirmed the records of history. Rockhopper has four top shape, inserts, each Pearl more than 500, precious 150 or so. It contains, custom of the Ming dynasty, Queen’s Coronet as 9 dragons 4 Phoenix, but unearthed from dingling Coronet, long 9 Phoenix 12. Yi Zhu Jun loved Queen, to the point of ruining raditional law.

In the tombs, only SI ling, Jane is a Royal graveyard alterations. Chongzhen Emperor Chu Yu-Chien reigned 17 years old, 17 years later, Li came to Beijing, Chu Yu-Chien shou Huang Ting hanged himself, long live in the mountains. Li Zicheng’s life under Chu Yu-Chien buried tombs in conjunction and the Queen’s Royal Tombs in the area, but only carrying a stroke to Changping town “but leaving the coffin back.” Finally by Changping State official Zhao Yigui 10 people donate coins 340,000, hired opened Royal graveyard ramps, Chu Yu-Chien, Zhou Huanghou was buried into. Chu Yu-Chien had no coffin coffin, had to move the Royal coffin for Emperor Chongzhen, then covered with Phong tho. The early Qing dynasty, the Qing dynasty as the win over the Han nobility, built after the Ming imperial tombs regulation to take ground, known as the SI ling.

Worthy of mention is the slave prevailed since the sacrificial system in the Zhengtong Emperor Zhu Qizhen was on his deathbed he abolished. Zhu Qizhen lifetime didn’t do much good, abolition of the sacrificial system, but is considered a good thing. According to the biography contains history, Empress Ming: Zhu Qizhen deathbed Testament said employing immolation, I can’t bear to do it, it should me repealed, future generations don’t make anymore. From Chinese tombs will be prevented from employing Guardsmen as a system. According to this and the history of “civil” about. Orthodox 14 years (1449), Aggressively South w Thorn, eunuch Wang Zhen tried to get away with access to power, British hostage clan, and results were defeated in civil engineering (now Hebei Huailai County, South-East). Pope had been captured. Soon, the Prince ascended the throne, away from his Holiness Pope as Overlord. The following year, the Pope returned to Beijing residence Palace for as long as seven years, called Overlord, but was closed, door is locked, even the trees have been cut down in the yard naked. Qian Huanghou living with, often doing the needlework, very considerate care of Pope. Pope is said to be deeply moved, “the door of” Pope landed again at last, dying in the Testament, leaves the “Queen of money, fame and pigment, when filial piety to try out. …… What should be buried in the future “. Abolition and concubines buried alive. Prior to this the three Imperial mausoleums (offer long ling, Ling, Jing ling), the concubines buried alive is very serious, this is the tombs of “East” and “West”. People reportedly buried alive on the day of death, the first to go to the party, after being taken to a temple. At this moment, cries scope of operation, these ordinary ladies was put on a small wooden, eunuch with the beams under the hanging rope bumpers maids head, removed a small wooden bed, was hanged to death. Mount coffin after death into brick point (“well”, no ramps). Sacrificial maids, concubines and their families have also been called “sky woman”, granted to certain offices. It contains: mausoleum of burying more than 30 people, offering Tomb 5, Jing Ling 11 (10 people).

Today, the Ming tombs as a national key cultural relics protection units, become a fascinating tourist attraction. Here, not only can look to the history of the rise and fall of the Ming dynasty, one can still see the wisdom and contribution of the Chinese people.


Tiananmen was Front Gate during the two dynasties imperial city of Beijing, was the former emperor issued edict places, have witnessed many great historic events. Tiananmen is also the new Chinese held the founding ceremony of the venue, has a special political status in the contemporary Chinese.
Tiananmen in the Ming Dynasty was called “Edward door”
Eighteen at the end of the Ming Dynasty Yongle Emperor Yongle (early 1421), promulgated the “imperial edict” Gaocheng palace in Beijing, marking the Beijing palace construction completed. Beijing palace walls also called the Forbidden City, Front Gate is the Meridian Gate, the front door is the door. The Forbidden City is around the imperial, imperial Front Gate Edward is the door, the door is the door of daming.
Qing Shunzhi first year (1644), the emperor Shunzhi in Beijing, will be renamed the “Tian Edward door door, the door will be renamed” daqingmen daming”. 2002 Beijing art photography Press published the album “Beijing” from the old gate in Beijing in 1987, the first housing repair company warehouse found by Manchu and Han, Mongolian three words inscribed “security door” plaque, the plaque width of 1.7 meters, 2.7 meters high, when the Qing Dynasty is the old legacy. Shunzhi eight years (1651), Tian An door in the overhaul and later renamed the “Tiananmen”, the plaque was changed to full, Han two words inscribed.
During the two dynasties emperor issued an imperial edict, to be held by imperial ceremony at Tiananmen rostrum. After the city Xuan Zhaoguan upstairs will read the edict, title of the woodcarving edict her mouth, and then put down the wire rope to Jinfeng tower, officials to undertake the edict with carved cloud like clouds in the tower below, add up to the rites to copy the Longting multiple copies, and then sent to the world.
The Allied forces had bombarded Tiananmen
In August 14, 1900, the Allied forces invaded the city of Beijing, the morning of August 15th, U.S. artillery lieutenant Sue Mo Lyle chalked out a target in the morning the door on the door, the cannon blasted open door approach aimed at Qing Dynasty, and later in the same way and opened the door of Tiananmen. The Empress Dowager Ci Xi Yue Chao in Ci Xi and nephew fled back to Beijing when had the escort, Yue Chao’s 1962 memoir, he escorted Ci Xi back to the palace after the Tiananmen, see “Tiananmen has brushed red and grey, bullet holes still visible, Duanmen vice versa”.
October 10, 1911, Wuchang uprising broke out. In February 12, 1912, the Qing Dynasty promulgated “abdication edict”, declared the end of the Qing dynasty. March 10, 1912, Yuan Shikai, after Sun Zhongshan as the second president of the Republic of china. At that time, according to the government of the Republic of China promised “preferential conditions”, the abdication of the emperor Puyi still live in the palace of Heavenly Purity between north to shenwumen “sleep after”, but to the South Gate of Heavenly Purity to Tiananmen between the “former”, as a symbol of state power be taken over by the government of the Republic of china. Yuan Shikai of Tiananmen and the palace of “former” part of the palace, palace and the gate of the stele inscription, by the Qing Dynasty Manchu, Chinese two languages into Chinese, and the Qing Dynasty renamed China door door”. The morning of October 10, 1913, Yuan Shikai took eight lift to the the Imperial Palace Temple held a bridal sedan chair of the Republic of China officially became the president’s ceremony in the afternoon, Yuan Shikai Duan Qirui, accompanied by the Department of the army chief, held a military parade in Tiananmen. Yuan Shikai in 1915 to emperor, in the room behind the Tiananmen set up the Preparatory Office of the ceremony, more than 590 dollar funding for enthronement ceremony, then the preparatory office sign hanging in the middle of Tiananmen on the eastern side of the door. Ironically, the people against Yuan Shikai was in June 6, 1916 after the death of the Preparatory Office of the ceremony was converted into a funeral firm.
Tiananmen is the birthplace of the five four movement
During the first World War, Japan an excuse to declare war on Germany sent troops to Shandong, Chinese claimed Germany in 1897 “Jiaozhou Bay incident” golden Jiaozhou Bay concession. In January 1919, China as a German victory over the country, sent a delegation to participate in the Paris and will. But China decided to ignore the sovereign powers, Germany in Shandong seized ownership of japan. In May 4, 1919, Beijing more than 3000 patriotic students gathered in front of the Tiananmen, to recover the lost territory in Shandong, Japan in 1915, forcing Yuan Shikai to cancel the government signed the “Twenty-one” Secret Invasion, proposed “defend our sovereignty, punish the traitor”. After the students marched through Dongjiaominxiang to Xikou, Zhao floor alley fire Japanophile bureaucrat Cao Rulin house. This is the beginning of the new democratic revolution in China, the beginning of the five four movement”.
In March 12, 1926, the Japanese warship helped Zhang Zuolin to attack Tianjin Jun Dagu port, port Feng Yuxiang National Army stationed in Dagu shelling, Japan also gathered the original eight members, citing “Treaty of 1901″ forced Chinese troops from Tianjin. In March 18th, thousands of patriotic students gathered in front of the Tiananmen, to protest the aggression, the abolition of “Treaty of 1901″. After the student demonstrations were massacred in front of the Duan Qirui administration, this is why the “three one eight massacre”.
Before Tiananmen, there was a “Zhongshan Road”
In 1928, after the Northern Expedition army occupied Beijing, Beijing will be changed to “Beijing”, will be in front of the Tiananmen between Changan and Changan left the door on the right door road named “Zhongshan Road”. In 1937 the Japanese occupation of Peking, Peking will maintain local traitors organization in October 12th of that year the proposal of “revitalizing the old state, clarify the party”, the Kuomintang Zhongshan Road name name undo, Beijing was changed to Beijing. The surrender of Japan in 1945, October 10th, tens of thousands of people flocked to Tiananmen, witnessed the surrender of the Japanese army in North China to China military ceremony in Taihe Palace square.
The founding ceremony held in Tiananmen
In October 1, 1949 the “people’s Daily” published on the front page of the “news of the Central People’s government set up” ceremony was held today in the capital, it is:
“October 1, 1949 (today) the Central People’s Government Committee and Chinese people’s Political Consultative Conference first plenary delegates gathered in Tiananmen, in the people’s Republic of China Central People’s government set up ceremony. Hundreds of thousands of people in Beijing various organizations of workers or students citizens will participate in the ceremony. It is reported that the assembly ceremony procedures are as follows:
I. the Secretary General of the Central People’s government announced the meeting.
Two. The chairman of the Central People’s government is in position, the vice chairman is in position, and the member is in position.
Three, playing the anthem.
Four, chairman of the Central People’s Government of the people’s Republic of China announced the establishment of the Central People’s government and the national flag (also salute, salute after playing the Anthem).
Five. The chairman of the Central People’s Government read out the Central People’s government announcement.
Six, the parade (1, China commander-in-chief of the people’s Liberation Army Review, 2, China commander-in-chief of the people’s Liberation Army issued a parade command, 3, FenLieShi).
Seven, march.”
The founding ceremony began in October 1st 15, to fourth procedures, chairman Mao Zedong solemnly declared the “people’s Republic of China Central People’s government, set up today, then press the button, the flag in Tiananmen square from the new China first five-star red flag.
After the parade troops held March past, hundreds of thousands of people to participate in the ceremony of the parade began, until 21:20, chairman Mao Zedong in Tiananmen announced that “Comrades hard, the end of the meeting”, the last batch of people gathered in Tiananmen before the exit to leave the square.

The sixi King mausoleums

The sixi King mausoleums

The sixi King mausoleums is located 30 kilometers west of yinchuan, as the name suggests is a Royal Mausoleum of the xixia dynasty. Belong to national key cultural relics protection units, known as the East pyramids.

1038 yuanhao dangxiang ethnic leaders in today’s yinchuan xixia dynasty is established, this dynasty in history for 189 years later Mongolia the destroyer.

Yuanhao, founding emperor of the Western Xia dynasty, the feeling is a very funny person, business, cool, dare to dare to fight, capacious brainpan, dripping play. For example, and engaged the song, defeated the song and bring peace back to Song dynasty. And Liao, too, expanded the territory as well as ensure stability in border areas.

Yuanhao extravagance in his later years. A flamboyant way, brutal tyranny. He keeps Princess to fill, leading to Port-au-Prince to kill, is a sword to the nose, Bled and died a day later.

When I went to the Western Xia tombs was caught in the off-season, belonged to the bus not hair, many taxis are expensive, because back when empty. Finally playing a taxi, and the drivers speak good price from 20 Yuan to the main entrance. To the main entrance ticket into the scenic spot, take the car battery for free to the Museum, visitors can go out continues to move forward, there is also a statue of Hall, yuanhao’s life are described in more detail here. Statuary Hall move is Western Xia imperial tombs, the original buildings in the history of the wind and rain would have been destroyed, and only a few consolidation mound, sunset, lonely standing there, like to tell visitors to its former glory and honor.

Visitors can come out from the main entrance and several people fight for a car and took me to the streets (Beijing LU), pay ten Yuan, about 8 km from the Emperor’s Tomb on the road. And then takes the number 17 bus to the finish–the South Gate Plaza, visit yinchuan distinctive building–Tiananmen Square.

Small Tiananmen Square is the product of the cultural revolution, is modelled on the scale of Tiananmen Square-built, it’s kind of fun.

South Gate square not far from the building of the xixia dynasty Chengtian Temple Tower (also known as theta). Yuan Hao is the death of his youngest son ascended the throne, his mother to bless their children and country country purposely built, the original tower in Qianlong was destroyed by an earthquake, we can see today was rebuilt during the period of the reign. Top Board, the breeze and panoramic view of frontier life so much for blessing.

The luxury of decline — Alhambra’s Palace

Finally, a China Southern Tang Emperor Li size once wrote a famous piece of word, the plaintive to almost unbounded: “q-how can worry about, like one Jiangchun water to the East.” And away from China’s thousands of miles of Spain Granada kings built the famous in the architectural history of the palace, that is, the Alhambra Palace, also known as Moorish palace, is the sad melancholy is specific reflect.

Spain’s Islamic state has gone down, the situation is very serious, and the Catholic Church in Spain is in vogue for a time, there is a great unity of the whole of spain. And small the kingdom of Granada and what forces to stop, finally one day, the Spanish monarch sent his command, life Granada surrender to it, and converted to Catholicism, or weapon additivity. In the face of the powerful kingdom of Spain, Granada king Achel Wang immediately summoned his giant to discuss countermeasures, a few days in a row, they are still arguing about. The interior minister, led by openly advocating peace. The Military Secretary led battle. Chancellor of the exchequer played a way: “we have many natural barrier, big Kwan, Fumo opens, and our officers and men of the concerted efforts, and resolutely fight against foreign aggression.” Interior minister played a way: “of our country, the army is less, if we want to win is almost impossible, than peace, to protect the ancestors.” They argue that there is no unified opinion. The fifth day AHMAR brother came back from outside, the brother said: “the current situation is concerned, if lose the natural barrier to Chen eye enemy unavoidably too long the enemy of gas, since ancient times, outnumbered and a lot of examples, the problem is we must unite in a common struggle against the enemy.” Then Hemar killed the Spanish envoy, ordered the messengers to the king of spain. The Spanish king Jiexin fly: “you what granada! Dare to kill me if I insulted the messengers.” So that night dear collar army to go forward with great strength and vigour of granada. Gemar Wang heard the news’ panic, military minister said: “since ancient times Fight fire with water. They are the masters of the evil, and the God will bless us over it.” So the Military Secretary to coach, led the fifty thousand army against the Spanish army.

A few days later, the Spanish army and hundreds of miles, it is ever-victorious, invincible. Finally in a day to meet the military. A military genius military minister Eshou into the capital must pass through, as the Spanish army is not for what provocation. Every night, a small military minister sent troops to harass the enemy. The Spanish soldiers had to rest for a few nights, and then in a dark night 90 miles. The king heard the enemy Hemar retreat immediately ordered to Chancellor of the exchequer attack, Chancellor of the Exchequer in succession letter 12 said in a statement: “the enemy is too strong, we can only with static braking. They do not support long distant supply, food, and can automatically retreat, then we will be done in one vigorous effort to win.” But the king of Hemar listen to those jealous Chancellor of the exchequer of courtiers, be sure to Chancellor of the exchequer attack, said: “the morale of the enemy has fallen, and not to attack, let them to recharge your batteries will be more difficult to cope with.” The military minister received the letter after yangtianzhangtan “days I want to die, feel helpless.” Immediately went toward the army command. Spanish spies heard the news early, late to arrange only Granada troops into the net. When Granada’s forces into the bag, a sound, more than 2 00000 against 50000, less than half, Spain made glorious victory. Chancellor of the Exchequer’s Dutch act. The Spanish army marched to the capital of granada.

King Hull heard the news, once a scene of chaos and at a loss. The interior minister said: “now only and nothing else.” So Hemar Wang Ming Interior Minister as plenipotentiary to the Spanish forces and, while Spain now provender shortage, although known as the Erershiwan army, the lose a lot, centerless battles. He agreed to make peace. But for Granada must serve the Catholic, to the king of Hemar to send to the heads of his battle prince, and each year must tribute silver five million and two thousand, in King Hemar panic in the entirely accepted this humiliating treaty, there is a war just ended.

So, in order to maintain the kingdom of Granada and comfortable palace of pleasure, humiliation to survive. And the Alhambra is they face the irretrievable decline to seek a life of luxury reflected, so the palace built is gorgeous, elegant and extravagant. Give a person a kind of find joy in sorrow in melancholy feel helpless.

It was built in a solitary risk of Granada Spain on the mountain, surrounded by a circle of 3500 meters long stone wall. Snaking its way through the thick forest green plexus, which is why it’s called the Alhambra, the Alhambra in Arabic meaning is “red fort”. It covers an area of 35 acres, around the ring with high thick castle and dozens of towers. The earliest of the human’s architecture, including the Alhambra castle and the Alhambra, is the palace of the molar, the latter is the residence of other officials and the people of the Lord.

When people through along the wall gate that the public entrance, you can see two mutually vertical rectangular courtyard. The courtyard to the north and South called Academy of garnet, toward the view, the atmosphere than a solemn, things to the yard called lion court, wives of access, the environment is a luxury.
The hospital is not high: on both sides of the walls, the north and south ends with slender gallery. Behind the North Gallery tickets is the main hall, the main hall, also known as ambassador hall is a square, the base 18 square meters, 18 meters high hall, in the middle is a dome of 75 feet tall, to the throne room, equipped with Sudan throne, Ambassador hall to the sculpture of the star shaped ceiling color and arched windows known, overall correct discreet, by contrast the house more, coupon Gallery Yi light, gallery in the temple walls are in plastering layer painted designs. The courtyard is not grand, rich, but showing a touch of melancholy. There is a rectangular pool in the yard, crystal flow Che, four weeks with myrtles, so also known as the golden mother Palace here. So relax a bit stiff atmosphere, the yard, and some soft. With the East mosque and the Academy of the bathroom, the courtyard full up.

The lion house is a rectangular courtyard, 116 feet long and 66 feet wide. The practice and school were. Surrounded by 124 marble columns, they are crowded with irregular arrangement. A little clever in composition. This fine beautiful exquisite gallery from the intense and unstable color change shows the lion of charming. Imitate the Cistercian Order of hands between the forms of middle construction, brisk circular roof decorated with filigree pattern exquisite workmanship. Palace courtyard floor is paved with encaustic brick, surrounded by walls trimmed to 5 feet tall with blue and yellow and white color brick, up and down and indigo blue and golden yellow dichromatic enamel decorative edge. Interior is full of brightly colored geometric patterns and Arabia text patterns. Palace center is the fountain of lions, is a carved 12 head symbol of strength of white marble lions surrounded by alabaster dish shaped pool, lion shaped Xiongjin, who seized the momentum, name this is the Lion House, also near the sisters hall, hundreds of 5000 small sag, form different cellular roof. This is as representative of the Moorish clock pumice dome, hall placed a mole people the earliest porcelain products – 1320 vases. School is on the north side of the wives of the bedroom, there is a small garden outdoor. From the mountain springs drew into N Road, murmuring flowing through each bedroom, to the summer heat, and finally into the long pond in hospital.

In building on the periphery of the Alhambra Palace, built in the 13th century “to create a business” garden villa is the most famous, the Alhambra, natural environment, it is tranquil and fresh, rose garden, laurel and myrtle moors are left, rich fragrance, in the garden and an elm tree. This is in 1812 the British Duke of Wellington transplanted from Britain to here.

The Mausoleum of Emperor Qinshihuang (一)

Geographical environment
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor in the south of Mount Li, north of the Wei river.
This with a beautiful natural environment, the only Mount Li Lintong County East horse amount of this mountain range high altitude. The mountains zygomorphic, like a screen like stand at the beginning of the mausoleum after, the mausoleum is located in Lishan Mountain crest surrounded by, and the Lishan seamless.
There is an artificial pond water transformation in the eastern side of the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor. According to the “waterways” records: “water out of the Lishan Mountain in the northeast, the originate Beiliu, after Emperor Qin Shihuang buried in Shanbei, the water had and crooked, east north, turn, Shihuang made Ling soil, its in the deep, the water volume into a pool, predicate pond…… The water flow through the northwest North emperor.” The original came from the northeast of Mount Li water pond, the water from south to north. Later built the mausoleum of the first Qin emperor, in the cemetery of the construction of the southwest side of a thing to the dam, the length of the dam is more than 1000 meters, width 40 meters, the width of 70 meters, residual 2 to 8 meters high, it is commonly referred to as the Wuling site. It is this dam will be originally from Li pond water to the northeast northwest flow, and around the northeast of Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor.
In addition, on the eastern side of the cemetery, there are hot spring water through the The stream never stops flowing. According to the “shuijingzhu” records: “there are hot spring water in the pond water southwest, the world as liaoji”. “Sanqinji” contains: “Li Shan hot springs in northwest.” Water pond hot springs and the northwest was visible.
On the south side of the mountain, the east side of the East and the formation of the three surface of the ring. “Mountain water ring” is the most important geographical features of Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor.
The Mausoleum of Emperor Qinshihuang
Ancestors of the emperor and Empress Dowager Xuan cemetery buried in Linzhang county to the west of the Zhi Yang area, the mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, selection is decided at the time of the etiquette in the east of the Zhi Yang Lishan o, because the ancient imperial tombs are in accordance with the living of the noble and humble arrangement. “Book of Rites”, “Ya” and other books records: “the south, north, West”. “This is the southwest corner of Austria, elders are”. The Eastern Han Dynasty, “Lun Heng,” a book records was more explicit: “west of Cardiff, elders, respect, respect in the west, the British young in the East…… The dead husband tomb, Tibet; Tian, the diet; house, people live, three people, to more fierce.” Namely in Zhi Yang to empress dowager Xuan also hope that the tomb buried in between her husband and son, namely “Nishimo Goo, looking east my child”, it seems that also is by elders in the west, the British young east principle. Qin Shihuang has known ancestors buried in the Yang Zhi Qin zhaoxiangwang, Qin Zhuangxiang Wang Heqin declared empress. Since the ancestors of tombs are buried in the west of Linzhang County, buried in the east of Zhi Yang as a junior Qin Shihuang only. Sidelined if the tomb in the west of the Zhi Yang, apparently contrary to the traditional etiquette, so the mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, selected at the foot of Lishan in full compliance with the younger generation to occupy the ritual.
The Prime Minister Li Si is the tomb of the designer, so Zhang Han government supervision. A total of 720000 human resources, the use of the number of the tomb of the maximum number of nearly 800000, almost equivalent to the construction of the 8 times the number of Pyramid hu.

Construction process
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor is a huge project, with the number of workers, the long duration is hitherto unknown.
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor construction scenario
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor construction scenario
The cemetery construction with Qin Shihuang’s political career. When he was 13 years old just ascended the throne when Qin Zheng Yuannian (247 years ago), the cemetery will start construction. The ancient emperors had made the emperor’s mausoleum is not the first, early in the Warring States period had made princes King Ling has become a common practice. Such as “Zhao Su Hou fifteen years Shou Ling”, and Zhongshan Pingshan King’s tomb is a lifetime. But Qin Shihuang had made the King Mausoleum ahead of time to the throne early, this is an improvement of Qin Shihuang. Cemetery project built for 39 years, until the death of the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty has not yet completed, Emperor Hu hai to the throne, then built more than a year basically completed.
The cemetery project, and can be divided into three construction stages.
Initial stage. Since the emperor ascended the throne to the unity of the 26 years, this stage has launched cemetery project design and the main body of the project construction, initially laid the cemetery project scale and the basic pattern.
Medium term. From the national to Qin Shihuang for thirty-five years, 9 years, for the large-scale construction period of the cemetery project. Up to 720000 prisoners to large-scale construction, the basic completion of the main project of the cemetery.
Final stage. Since the Qin Shi Huang 35 years to Qin II, two years in winter, which lasted more than three years, this stage is mainly cemetery project closeout and soil covering tasks. At this stage outbreak of the Chen Sheng, Wu Guangqiyi, hit from the cemetery is insufficient number of Whalley of swimming near (now near Lintong County Xinfeng), the Qin Empire is on the verge of death. At this time had been promoted to Shaofu that Zhang Han suggested: “pirates have been to, all the Xinjiang, now county nearly too late to take a tumble, Lishan acts, please pardon, granted soldiers to strike.” II immediately quasi playing, life Zhang Han led repair mausoleum army hit back at the rebel army, have not yet been fully completed the cemetery project had to hastily completed.
History of past dynasties
Qin Zi Ying Yuannian (206 years ago), Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor suffered the first time may also be one of the greatest catastrophe. According to the Ski Gozo Chronicles “and” Han, volume one, first Gautier Ji “,” Han, Volume 36, Chu Yuan Wang passed the sixth “records, Xiang Yu scored Guanzhong, massive destruction of the mausoleum of the first Qin emperor, destroying the buildings on the ground of excavation and the emperor.
The Mausoleum of Emperor Qinshihuang
The Mausoleum of Emperor Qinshihuang
Liu Bang defeated Xiang Yu, the capital of Changan, the establishment of the Western Han dynasty. In order to win over the people all over the world, to the Han Emperor twelve years (195 years ago), ordered the mausoleum of the first Qin emperor properly to protect, make 20 families who lived around the mausoleum of Emperor Qinshihuang, as Shouling people watch the mausoleum of the first Qin emperor. Since then, various dynasties rulers of the Qin Dynasty imperial tombs, were ordered to protect.
But even so, the not well. Record “Han – Liu Xiangchuan” there is a child in the vicinity of the mausoleum of Emperor Qinshihuang sheep, one sheep fall into the hole, children play with torches to the caves to find, unexpectedly has entered the underground palace, caused the fire, will be the emperor’s coffin burned. Remember to “Han”, “waterways Wei Shui” also made added: “the shepherd seeking sheep burning fire, ninety immortal extension.”
The new mang Dynasty, the Red Army will find Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor excavation, buried with copper coffin, melted, with copper.
The Wei and Jin Dynasties, the rulers and the excavation of Zhao Shi hu.
The Tang Dynasty, Huang Chao scored off, Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor has experienced a massive destruction. Huang Chao stolen Qin Dynasties have legend, Ming Du Mu in the Lishan “cloud:” the beginning of imperial tombs of the inner city Friday in, old four door, outer city 20 weeks, the site kept Ju, from nandom, Qiu Bingzhi,: the south gate also. Right door pivot and exposed soil stone, high four Zhang Ling, Xiang Yu, Huang Chao all taste. Old man: he was buried in the cloud, the virtual ear.” Are mu the Lishan “written Huang Chao to steal the mausoleum of things, in new and old,” Tang “was not recorded, so many scholars for its authenticity questioned.

Stone Forest

History and culture
Yunnan Stone Forest geology park “the stone forest” is the world’s earliest karst terminology and 300 BC, Qu Yuan’s “Tianwen works have Shilin;
At the end of the 19th century in Paris, France, the journal appeared relevant Shilin Yi Sani people and cultural articles; stone forest in 1931 by government attention, the stone forest park built in the early; in the 1930s is the stone forest in the scientific research literature;
In the 1940s, a large number of scholars of stone forest and Yi culture; from 1950s to 1980s, scholars at home and abroad gathered, geology, geomorphology, hydrology, vegetation, animals, people and their social and economic have knowledge system, has become the Yunnan provincial nature reserves and national key scenic spots, Shilin tourism development research produce significant benefits.

In the mid-1990s were held an international karst academic conference, twice Shilin special international symposium, the completion of the stone forest geology and geomorphology, the monographic study, Shilin scientific value and international status has been confirmed; 1999 Stone Forest Management Bureau and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing geographical research, the establishment of a joint Shilin research center, domestic and foreign famous karst researchers composition Shilin Scholarship Fund Committee, Shilin research fund was established, from the stone forest tourism income allocation of funding Shilin research, scholars at home and abroad application, project funding has more than 50, Shilin power machine, stone forest ecosystem, stone forest development and protection are in-depth study.
2000 held an international seminar in Shilin Yi culture; scientific research has laid a solid foundation for the development of forest protection.

The origin of the Yi Nationality
Today, most of the time in a hurry, a small part of time to go shopping, only to the attractions is the stone forest. On the road from time to time can be seen minority living in the house built close to the mountains, layer upon layer, forming a piece of residential area, and residential area, the mountains is steaming mist, like a big green steamed steamed.
The stone forest mainly inhabited by minorities or yi. Yi’s house is similar to the Dali Bai people, also painted on the wall of the outer wall is full of fine pictures. The difference is that the wall is painted on the wall of the traditional Chinese painting, and the Yi is an exaggeration of the art of painting, style as print. The whole wall is a huge piece of work, looks lively, vivid, image, atmosphere, it is appreciated.

With national flavor of the sculpture.
Among all the minority nationalities, the people of the Yi people are outstanding, they are the only people who use their own calendar. They used the “October solar calendar”, a total of 36 days a month, a year, a total of ten months, the last remaining five days as the new year. They take the twelve signs of the zodiac, belonging to the day of the zodiac, the street, called what street, therefore, the road of the Yi people in Niujie, dog street, Ma Street, Sheep Street, and so on. Yi the reason for not using the Han of the lunar calendar, is because the Han of the 24 solar terms for Yi does not apply, they have their own culture and folk custom. And they created the earliest Egyptian calendar, the calendar more than 200 years earlier than the world. Very early on in the Yi nationality of your own text and glyph and pronunciation are Japanese kana and have many similar, as between the two priorities, it is not known.

Costumes with national characteristics
Yi is a national sing and dance, saying, “will be talking to sing folk songs, walking will jump left dance”, it is the best portrayal of the Yi people. When the young men and women in love, is to form Duige to find lovers. Therefore, if a girl can neither dance nor sing, it will be equal to the marriage. During their traditional festivals, they are singing and dancing to celebrate, so Yi dance is very popular.

The Yi people of wine, wine can drink the wind heyday, people of all ages and both sexes are generally, their alcohol consumption is very high. Even saying that to describe them: “a pound pound gargle, three pounds four pounds of moistening throat, five pounds six pounds down the wall I don’t pour, 7 pounds, eight pounds of what all don’t know.” In the Yi nationality, the woman takes the good wine for his own man. If a man at the banquet on all the people to drink down and they are not drunk, that is a woman hero. So, when a man is drunk, Yi women is there won’t be any blame, but her husband home, boil water to wash his face and feet and settle his sleep well. This custom, let go with the men who would envy, not sigh hate their early married some years.

According to our common people’s habits, to wake up in the morning to drink a glass of boiled water to clean the stomach, and the Yi people wake up in the morning, is to drink a glass of liquor. People who do not know the difference, and their explanation is very simple, do not drink a glass of wine a day can not sleep. Yi has a sentence: “no wine is not a feast, no tea, no guests, no song.” When you get to the Yi minority, they if you are the guest of honor, with the possession of the aged Pu’er hospitality, to show the guests warmly and sincerely. In addition, they have the custom of entering the three cup wine. When guests come to respect the first wine and said, “welcoming wine”, stretch even dry three cups, eat when Jing second wine, said “welcome wine”, guests are walking when king the third wine, known as “see a visitor out wine”. Each wine cup is three. , of course, the Yi people although good drink, but they are mainly rice, corn wine, rice wine, the degree is not high and drink slowly, drank too much is not objectionable. The Yi people wine tank to fill, so it is called “jars of wine”. And they eat the meat, called “Tuo Tuo meat”, is to cut the meat into a Tuo Tuo, not slice is not chopped, so take out to the elders or guests to eat. In the Yi People’s view, the meat chopped chopped, equal to cut off the feelings. Therefore, the meat will “bulk” tasty meal.

Wudang Mountain

Wudang Mountains, the holy land of Taoism, is located in Shiyan City, Danjiangkou Province, Hubei province. Wudang hill, also known as Tai Shan, Xie Luoshan, mountain ginseng, Xianshi mountain, the ancient have “high mountain”, “elegant” and “Yue”.

As of 2013, Wudang Mountains has 53 ancient buildings, construction area of 27000 square meters, construction site 9, an area of about 200000 square meters, the whole mountain to preserve all kinds of cultural relics 5035.

The Ming Dynasty, Wudang Mountains was the emperor as “Yue”, “Zhi Shi Xuan Yue”, known as “the supreme imperial temples”. Wudang Mountains in the “four famous mountains are arch Yi, prominent five party is the” five Chaozong Xianyueshan “crown” is well known in the world.

Wudang Mountains is one of the world’s cultural heritage sites released by the United Nations, is China’s national key scenic area, national AAAAA grade scenic area. Wudang Mountains is the birthplace of Taoism and Wudang martial arts, known as “the ancient warriors Shengjing mountains, the best in all the land”.
Wudang martial arts, is an important genre of Chinese martial arts. Yuanmomingchu, monk Zhang Sanfeng in the future, create Wudang, and influence so far.

Taoism development
Before the Northern Song Dynasty has not yet appeared Xuanwu myth, Wudang Mountains has become a famous mountain of taoism. Wudang Mountains in the name of Han (126-221) has been. “Houhanshu” records of Zhu Muyin in Wudang Mountains. Northern and Southern Dynasties (386-582) Li Daoyuan (? -527) written by “shuijingzhu” records, also known as Wudang Mountains, Shen Xian, Taihe mountain mountain room, Xie Luoshan. The home of immortal Taoism known for a total of ten blessed spot, cave, cave thirty-six, seventy-two place. The famous Tang Dynasty monk Sima Cheng Zhen (647-735) series “not included” blessed spot in Wudang Mountains. The Du Guangting (850-933 years) in 901 series “Dongtianfudi Yue Du mountain Ji will be included in the Wudang Mountain 72 blessed the ninth blessed. This shows that at the end of the ninth century, at the beginning of Tenth Century, Wudang Mountains has become one of the holy land of Taoism.

Before the Song Dynasty, the literature on Wudang Mountains is not much. In addition to the already mentioned above, “Han”, “waterways” and “Dongtianfudi Yue Du mountain” out, otherwise the Tang Dynasty Li Jifu (758-814 years) written by “element and counties map” that are not mentioned in the Xuanwu. In the initial stages of the North Song Dynasty Li Fang (925-996 years) series taipingyulan Volume 43 “Wudang”, quoted the data with the Wudang Mountain, the Nanyong state of mind “,” Yin Jun inward “,” Zhen Huan on, recorded history in Wudang Taoist immortal person Yin Xi, Yin Changsheng, Dyson, Xie Yun et al without mention of basaltic deeds. Music History (925-1002) written by “Taiping Huanyuji” volume one hundred and forty-three “Wudang Mountains” is not about Xuanwu records. This can be used as the early Northern Song Dynasty have not been to Wudang Mountains and Xuanwu holding relations.

Wudang Mountains has become the holy land should be enshrined in the Xuanwu “Primus said after the North Zhenwu” wonderful printed appearance. Song Huizong Xuanhe years (1119-1125 years) to create zixiaogong worship Xuan in Wudang Mountains north of the top Wu, may be the first Wudang Mountains basalt temple to worship. To the Southern Song Dynasty, Xuanwu belief has been very common, Xuanwu monastic legend of the Wudang Mountains has been the public. Dong Suhuang “Emperor Xuan memoir of Taihe mountain, Wudang Mountain have a detailed description, indicating the location of Wudang Mountain is located below the wing Chiu Capella in overseas. And the increase of Qing Dynasty Jade purple Xuanwu Tao Yuanjun taught, ordered him to practice the plot of Wudang Mountains. “Emperor Xuan record” records: “the fifteen year old prince (Xuanwu) by parents, look for the valley resort. So moved jade Qing Dynasty granted endless road purple goddess. Yuan Jun said: can Bacchus East, there are mountains in the carriage under the wing…… Can choose the peak into the mountains, run high in the clouds……. The prince is in the teacher’s language, Yue Haidong, fruit see the mountain. The landscape has seventy-two peaks, no hiding, a large Chui, sky tower, when Yang ji. So mining division of the commandment, Head Hill said Taihe mountain peak, peak, purple. Purple rock rock said, because of living yan. Hidden virtual one, the silent will be million, forty-two years, the big way.”……

The song into the occasion, all States have been in all States, Wudang Mountains temple was severely damaged. For example zixiaogong after 1260 has been deserted. In 1267, Kublai Khan in the capital of yanjing. 1269 winter, tortoise, snake and Yanjing in the western suburbs of sorghum river. They thought is manifestation of basaltic, a symbol of the Yuan Dynasty in the fortunes of Xinglong, Emperor room and worship Xuanwu. In 1270 he built palace Zhao sorghum to worship xuanwu. Taoist Wang Zhen chang into the Wudang Mountains in 1275, led by Dayou Lu et al five view reconstruction followers. In 1278 the number of spell famous Taoist priest Zhao Shoujie, led the disciples rebuilt Wudang you Sheng guan. 1286 Kublai Khan life master Ye Xizhen, Liu Daoming, Hua Dong really acted as Wudang Mountains reminding, and repeated drop Yu Xiang to Wudang Mountain blessing wishes.

Yuan Dynasty, Wudang Mountain by emperor worship and various Taoist business make incense is more flourishing, legend of the relationship between basaltic and Wudang Mountain, also have new development. Liu Daoming writes “Wudang Fudi general collection” the origin of the name of the Wudang Mountains put forward a new view. He believes that the Wudang Mountain named Taihe mountain, due to the success of the basalt in the convent, after soaring, the mountain non basaltic to when, renamed the Wudang. The book is full of relics in the Wudang Mountains Xuanwu JiangMo the convent. Five is to view as an example, the Wudang Mountains scenery that will be attached to the xuanwu.
As far as possible is Dong Huang Zhuan “Wulong view monument” contained, five Longguan built is due to the Yao Jian to Wudang Mountain to pray for rain have experience, the supernatural Zou Wen Emperor Taizong (627-649 year reign). Wudang Mountains built in view of emperor decree the miracle. At the end of the Southern Song Dynasty, Wang Xiangzhi will retreat as Xuanwu five view. Liu Daoming accordingly and invent basaltic enlightenment soaring, five dragon Ye driving rising, so in his old hidden place built five Longguan to sacrifice.
A Book later in the Wudang blessed general collection “of the book of Xuantian emperor Qisheng, in the story of the Taoist Wudang Mountain, ornamentation of the plot, and after the test, make the biography of the basaltic more in line with the Taoist immortal biography of the conventional structure, namely the ascetic monasticism from the beginning, after the test and rose ascend fairyland. And the new additions are indicated in the plot.
Taoist music
Taoist music, Taoist praying ceremony, for the gods wish Christmas, pray God bless, demon exorcism and turn undead etc. the ritual activities in music.
Taoist music is indispensable in the Taoist praying ceremony. It has contrast, rendering the atmosphere of religion, strengthen the belief in the supernatural world yearning and the gods worship function.

Le as an ancient religious music, on the connotation of musical form and tone are permeated with basic Taoist beliefs and aesthetic thoughts, the formation of the unique pattern.

Road music aesthetics reflected the pursuit of longevity and quietism. The solemn melody, and there is no lack of quiet quiet. Performance called God sent the great momentum, the demon Exorcist terrible courageous, praying for blessings and Qing joy, lively, sing the praises of God is a beautiful and quiet, and pray keep refining is melodious dimly discernible. Through the music of contrast, rendering, the Taoist ceremony, more solemn, solemn, sacred and mysterious; in music all immortal artistic conception can harmonious vividly reproduced the emotion into the mysterious world of the immortals.

Taoism music is composed of two parts of vocal and instrumental music, performing various forms of diversity, including solo, chorus, solo, ensemble and musical accompaniment form. Vocal music is the main part of the Taoist ritual music, melody (verses) is always very specific, expressing the ritual of desires and begging for, or resort to divine, or praise to angel. The melody and lyrics of harmony and unity, through various form collocation, make of the ritual activities.

Taoism music instrument includes almost the Chinese national musical instruments with more is bell, drums, chime, cymbals clang, wooden fish percussion; Sheng, pipes, flute, Xiao piped music; guqin, Ruan and other plucked string music.